Category Archives: Working Women

Women in the Workplace 2019: Five years in, the path to equality is clear

Source: McKinsey & Company and LeanIn.Org, 2019

From the summary:
• Women are less likely to be hired and promoted to manager: For every 100 men promoted and hired to manager, only 72 women are promoted and hired.
• Men hold 62% of manager-level positions, while women hold just 38%. The number of women decreases at every subsequent level.
• One third of companies set gender representation targets for first-level manager roles, compared to 41% for senior levels of management.
• We can add 1 million more women to management in corporate America over the next five years if women are hired and promoted to manager at the same rates as men.
• Together, opportunity and fairness are the strongest predictors of employee satisfaction. Across demographic groups, employees universally value opportunity and fairness.
• Only 6 of the 323 companies have a full range of best practices in place to support inclusive and unbiased hiring and promotions.
• 1 in 4 women think their gender has played a role in missing out on a raise, promotion or chance to get ahead.
• Everyone benefits from opportunity and fairness. Diversity efforts are about ensuring employees of all genders, races, and backgrounds have access to the same opportunities.
• Black women and women with disabilities face more barriers to advancement and get less support than other groups of women.
• Women with disabilities face far more everyday discrimination like having their judgment questioned, being interrupted, or having their ideas co-opted.
• Lesbian women, bisexual women, and women with disabilities are far more likely than other women to hear demeaning remarks about themselves or others like them.
• Commitment to racial diversity is similar to commitment to gender diversity: 77% of companies, 59% of managers, and 56% of employees say it is a high priority. Challenging bias in the workplace

Now Is a Good Time for Working People to Get Involved in Politics: An Interview with Liliana Rivera Baiman

Source: Meagan Day, Jacobin, September 27, 2019

Liliana Rivera Baiman is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), a working mother, an immigrant, and a community and union organizer who’s running for city council in Columbus, Ohio.

Jacobin’s Meagan Day spoke to Baiman about the power of a city council to fight for workers and unions, Baiman’s experience growing up in a co-op village in Mexico, how the labor movement activated her politically, and what working-class people deserve…..

Closing the Gender Pay Gap

Source: Tamara Lytle, HR Magazine, Vol. 64 no. 2, Summer 2019
(subscription required)

The gender pay gap has been stubbornly hard to close, but the tide may be turning.

…. These pay gaps are due to many factors, including women’s stepping out of the workforce for family obligations, the concentration of women in certain relatively low-paying “pink collar” occupations (such as teaching and hospitality), stereotypes that women aren’t tough negotiators on pay and plain old bias, whether conscious or not. ….

…. Big-Picture Questions on Pay Disparities

• Do women generally wait longer than men for promotions?
• Are female workers shunted into lower-paying jobs?
• Are performance reviews based on subjective factors that can be clouded by unconscious bias?
• Is the company culture welcoming to women?
• Are there gender differences in nonsalary compensation such as bonuses, overtime opportunities and stock options?

Family-Friendly Policies, Gender, and Work–Life Balance in the Public Sector

Source: Mary K. Feeney, Justin M. Stritch, Review of Public Personnel Administration, Volume 39 Issue 3, September 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Family-friendly policies and culture are important components of creating a healthy work environment and are positively related to work outcomes for public employees and organizations. Furthermore, family-friendly policies and culture are critical mechanisms for supporting the careers and advancement of women in public service and enhancing gender equity in public sector employment. While both policies and culture can facilitate women’s participation in the public sector workforce, they may affect men and women differently. Using data from a 2011 study with a nationwide sample of state government employees, we investigate the effects of employee take-up of leave policies, employer supported access to child care, alternative work scheduling, and a culture of family support on work–life balance (WLB). We examine where these variables differ in their effects on WLB among men and women and make specific recommendations to further WLB among women. The results inform the literature on family-friendly policies and culture in public organizations.

Tackling the Global Profitarchy: Gender and the Choice of Business Sector

Source: Markus Goldstein, Paula Gonzalez Martinez, Sreelakshmi Papineni, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 8865, May 24, 2019

From the abstract:
Sectoral segregation is often used to explain a large part of a well-documented gender earnings gap in business profits. Women tend to sort into different sectors than men, and the sectors dominated by women tend to be less profitable. This paper investigates the horizontal dimension of sectoral segregation by studying global data on female and male enterprises operating in sectors that are typically dominated by the same and opposite sex. The analysis uses the novel Future of Business dataset, which spans 97 countries and was administered to enterprise owners, managers, and employees who use Facebook. The analysis finds that some of the earnings gap can indeed be explained by sector choice: female-owned businesses in male-dominated sectors make significantly higher profits than those in traditionally female sectors. The evidence points to a hierarchy of earnings, with male-owned businesses in male-dominated sectors earning the most, women in male-dominated sectors and men in female-concentrated sectors in the middle tier, and women in female-concentrated sectors at the bottom. Correlational analysis suggests that women who own businesses in male-dominated sectors are younger, married, and more likely to have inherited the business than women in female-concentrated sectors. They have similar education to women in female-concentrated sectors and present higher self-efficacy but lower entrepreneurial identity and commitment to the sector. Male support networks appear to be key for female-owned firms, with co-ownership with husbands and male role models factoring into the decision to cross over.

Is Technology Widening the Gender Gap? Automation and the Future of Female Employment

Source: Mariya Brussevich, Era Dabla-Norris, Salma Khalid, IMF Working Paper No. 19/91, May 2019

From the abstract:
Using individual level data on task composition at work for 30 advanced and emerging economies, we find that women, on average, perform more routine tasks than men/tasks that are more prone to automation. To quantify the impact on jobs, we relate data on task composition at work to occupation level estimates of probability of automation, controlling for a rich set of individual characteristics (e.g., education, age, literacy and numeracy skills). Our results indicate that female workers are at a significantly higher risk for displacement by automation than male workers, with 11 percent of the female workforce at high risk of being automated given the current state of technology, albeit with significant cross-country heterogeneity. The probability of automation is lower for younger cohorts of women, and for those in managerial positions.

INSIGHT: ‘You Look Mahvelous!’ Avoiding Appearance-Based Discrimination at Work

Source: Linda B. Dwoskin, Melissa Bergman Squire, Bloomberg Law, June 28, 2019

Employers that allow gender-based stereotypes to affect employment decisions or, in some jurisdictions, impose gender-based grooming codes risk violating anti-discrimination laws. Dechert attorneys discuss appearance-based discrimination framed as race or sex discrimination and provides practical advice for employers to avoid liability.

More Single Mothers Means More Need For Protection

Source: Maureen Minehan, Employment Alert, Volume 36 Issue 13, June 26, 2019
(subscription required)

You have several open customer service positions and receive a recommendation for a candidate through your employee referral program. When describing the potential candidate’s work experience, the referring employee also mentions the individual is a single mother. Afterwards, a member of the hiring team says he doesn’t want to bother interviewing the potential candidate because “single mothers are always a problem.”

Attitudes like this can put your organization at risk. Depending on the jurisdiction, single parents may be protected by statutes prohibiting discrimination based on marital status, parental status or caregiving responsibilities. Sex-based discrimination protections may also come into play….

Has Higher Education Solved the Problem? Examining the Gender Wage Gap of Recent College Graduates Entering the Workplace

Source: Xueqing Fan, Michael Sturman, Compensation & Benefits Review, OnlineFirst, Published June 19, 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
While there has been extensive historical evidence demonstrating the gender wage gap, gains made by women in terms of higher education may be reducing the gap among those recently entering the workforce. Education is a major determinant of wage, and women are often outpacing men now in terms of educational achievement. Thus, the question remains of whether these gains in education have reduced or even eliminated gender wage inequality. This study examines the gender wage difference among new graduates with the same education level using the most recent data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort. Despite the hope that greater representation of women with higher degrees would reduce or eliminate the gender wage gap for new entrants to the labor market, our results show that newly graduated men with an associate, bachelor’s, or master’s degree still earn significantly higher wages than newly graduated women with a same degree. Thus, in what we argue is a highly conservative test for the presence of the gender wage gap, the evidence strongly suggests that the wage gap is a continued and pervasive problem in the modern workplace.