Category Archives: Law Enforcement

Sleep Disorders, Health, and Safety in Police Officers

Source: Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, Laura K. Barger, Steven W. Lockley, Steven A. Shea, Wei Wang, Christopher P. Landrigan, Conor S. O’Brien, Salim Qadri, Jason P. Sullivan, Brian E. Cade, Lawrence J. Epstein, David P. White, Charles A. Czeisler, JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 306 no. 23, December 21, 2011
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Context: Sleep disorders often remain undiagnosed. Untreated sleep disorders among police officers may adversely affect their health and safety and pose a risk to the public.

Objective: To quantify associations between sleep disorder risk and self-reported health, safety, and performance outcomes in police officers.

Conclusion: Among a group of North American police officers, sleep disorders were common and were significantly associated with increased risk of self-reported adverse health, performance, and safety outcomes.

Preliminary 2011 Fatality Statistics

Source: National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund, December 20, 2011

From the press release:
After an alarming increase in 2010, the number of law enforcement deaths spiked even higher in 2011, rising more than 16 percent nationwide as of December 19, 2011. Firearms-related fatalities rose sharply for the second year in a row at almost 20 percent, while traffic-related deaths decreased by about 11 percent over the previous year. And deaths due to causes other than firearms or traffic-related incidents are up an alarming 92 percent.

Study: 1 in 3 American Youth Are Arrested By Age 23

Source: Maia Szalavitz, Time, Healthland Blog December 19, 2011

The first study to look at the arrest histories of American youth since the 1960s suggests a sharp increase: about one-third of people are cuffed for something more serious than a traffic violation before their early 20s.
See also:
Cumulative Prevalence of Arrest From Ages 8 to 23 in a National Sample
Source: Robert Brame, Michael G. Turner, Raymond Paternoster, and Shawn D. Bushway, Pediatrics, Published online December 19, 2011
(subscription required)
More Than 30 Percent Of Americans Arrested By Age 23, Study Says
Source: Mark Memmott, NPR, Two-Way Blog, December 19, 2011

Justice Expenditures and Employment, FY 1982-2007 – Statistical Tables

Source: Tracey Kyckelhahn, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 236218, December 2011

In 2007, federal, state, and local governments spent $228 billion and employed 2.5 million persons for police protection, corrections, and judicial
and legal services. Local police protection represented the largest share of both total justice expenditures (32%) and employment (36%), followed by state corrections (19% of expenditures and employment).

The findings in this report are based on the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts (JEE) series, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Government Finance Survey and Annual Survey of Public Employment. The data include yearly information on federal, state, and local government expenditures and employment for three justice functions: corrections, police protection, and judicial and legal services (for definition of terms, see page 9). Expenditure data are presented in real terms (see Methodology for more details). Extract tables from this series are accessible on the BJS website.

2010 edition of Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted

Source: FBI, 2011

From the press release:
According to information released today by the FBI, 56 law enforcement officers were feloniously killed in the line of duty last year; 72 officers died in accidents while performing their duties; and 53,469 officers were assaulted in the line of duty. The 2010 edition of Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted released today provides comprehensive tabular data about these incidents and brief narratives describing the fatal attacks.

Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System

Source: United States Sentencing Commission, October 2011

From the press release:
Today the United States Sentencing Commission submitted to Congress
its 645-page report assessing the impact of statutory mandatory minimum penalties on federal sentencing….In the report, the Commission recommends with respect to drug offenses that Congress reassess certain statutory recidivist provisions, and consider possible tailoring of the “safety valve” relief mechanism to other low-level, non-violent offenders convicted of other offenses carrying mandatory minimum penalties….The Commission also addresses the overcrowding in the federal Bureau of Prisons, which is over-capacity by 37 percent.
See also:
U.S. study urges sentencing reform
Source: UPI, October 31, 2011
States Redefine Felonies to Cut Costs
Source: Whitney Wetzel,, 02 November 2011
State budget cuts clog criminal justice system
Source: Greg Bluestein, Associated Press, October 26, 2011

Long-Term Effects of Law Enforcement’s Post-9/11 Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security

Source: Lois M. Davis, Michael Pollard, Kevin Ward, Jeremy M. Wilson, Danielle M. Varda, Lydia Hansell and Paul Steinberg, Prepared for the National Institute of Justice by the RAND Corporation, document number 232791, December 2010

This study examined the long-term adjustments that large, urban law enforcement agencies made to accommodate the renewed focus on counterterrorism and homeland security. The researchers present case studies of five major law enforcement agencies in major metropolitan areas to understand their experiences in these areas post-9/11.

The Growing Legal Implications of Tasers: A primer on the development, uses, and consequences of Tasers

Source: Maureen Moran, LLRX, August 18, 2011

Maureen Moran addresses research associated with the civil liberties, legal and law enforcement issues involving widespread availability – approximately 11,500 law enforcement agencies have acquired CEDs, or conducted energy devices. Tasers are the most common electronic control device used by law enforcement today.

Strategic Cutback Management: Law Enforcement Leadership for Lean Times

Source: Jane Wiseman, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, Research for Practice, NCJ 232077, July 2011

The United States is experiencing the 10th economic decline since World War II. This document presents lessons learned from past experience and suggests approaches leaders can use to address financial crises in law enforcement agencies.

Leadership is the most critical element for success. We know from the past that an organization’s leaders create a shared sense of the importance of the priorities and tasks of the group. It is this inspiration that induces workers to follow along in support of the group’s mission.

Additional lessons learned from the past:
• Avoid across-the-board cuts. They cause disproportionate harm.
• Use the crisis to improve management and improve productivity. In law enforcement, examples abound of departments faced with unfortunate crises — from consent decrees to accidental shootings — where the events provided meaningful moments of reflection, learning and process improvement. Budget crises are no different.
• Think long term. Research has shown that organizations capable of enduring a deep fiscal crisis had developed and were able to stick to a strategic plan with a multiyear time frame.
• Do not just cut costs, look for revenue opportunities. Research on past recessions shows that increasing a tax or fee provides relief faster than cutting expenditures. Although police agencies do not have the power to levy taxes, they may be able to charge user fees for some services.
• Invite innovation. During past fiscal crises, new approaches were tried that are now standard in many cities. For example, local governments have privatized certain city services and sold public facility naming rights.
• Look outside for help. Law enforcement can look outside the department to other government agencies, or to suppliers, academics or other subject matter experts for suggestions on improving operations at reduced cost.
• Targeted layoffs are more effective than hiring freezes.