Category Archives: Discrimination

The Economic Impact of Equal Pay by State

Source: Jessica Milli, Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR), Fact Sheet, #C457 May 11, 2017

From the summary:
Persistent earnings inequality for working women translates into lower lifetime pay for women, less income for families, and higher rates of poverty across the United States. In each state in the country, women experience lower earnings and higher poverty rates than men. The economic impact of this persistent pay inequality is far-reaching: if women in the United States received equal pay with comparable men, poverty for working women would be reduced by half and the U.S. economy would have added $512.6 billion in wage and salary income (equivalent to 2.8 percent of 2016 GDP) to its economy. This fact sheet presents state-level data on the impact equal pay would have on poverty and each state’s economy as well as the families living in them.

Voter Suppression Analysis

Source: Priorities USA, Civis Analytics, May 3, 2017

From the Dēmos summary:
….This analysis covers the effects of voter identification laws on voter participation during the 2016 election. Specifically, we find that changing to both “strict” and “non-strict” voter-id laws has a significant negative effect on total voter turnout and that these effects are most severe in African American areas of the country.

As a result, we can say with confidence that adding strict identification requirements had significant negative effects on voter participation during the 2016 election. ….

Related:
In Wisconsin, ID law proved insurmountable for many voters
Source: Christina A. Cassidy and Ivan Moreno, Associated Press, May 9, 2017

….By one estimate, 300,000 eligible voters in the state lacked valid photo IDs heading into the election; it is unknown how many people did not vote because they didn’t have proper identification. …

Managers’ Political Beliefs and Gender Inequality among Subordinates: Does His Ideology Matter More Than Hers?

Source: Seth Carnahan, Brad N. Greenwood, Administrative Science Quarterly, Online First, May 5, 2017

From the abstract:
To explore whether managers’ beliefs and attitudes influence gender inequality among their subordinates, we theorize about the relationship between managers’ political ideology, situated on a liberal–conservative continuum, and differences in the hiring, work team selection, and promotion of male versus female subordinates, as well as how a manager’s gender moderates this relationship. We analyze novel microdata from the U.S. legal industry from 2007 to 2012 and find that large law offices whose partners are more liberal hire a larger percentage of female associates, that more-liberal partners are more likely to select female associates to be members of their client teams, and that associates whose supervising partners are more liberal have greater gender parity in promotion rates. Further, we find that the ideology of male partners is significantly more influential than the ideology of female partners in affecting these differences. We find little evidence that sorting on the part of higher-quality female associates drives the results.

How Black Lives Matter Came to Philadelphia’s Schools

Source: Tamara Anderson and Shira Cohen, Labor Notes, May 8, 2017

When teachers in Seattle planned a Black Lives Matter action in response to an incident of violent racism last October, our caucus of teachers in Philadelphia got inspired.

Seattle’s John Muir Elementary had received bomb threats after planning a motivational event where elementary students on their way into school would be greeted by hundreds of African American men. After the threats, the union’s representative assembly voted to support the event, and thousands of educators wore Black Lives Matter T-shirts to support their students of color.

The Caucus of Working Educators (WE) saw our chance to bring that spirit to Philadelphia. But we knew our action would have to go beyond the hashtag, pushing educators, parents, and students into an honest and difficult dialogue.

About 20 percent of Philadelphia teachers are African American. Our city is mired in poverty and income disparity. Union jobs are steadily decreasing, and the district is shuttering public schools in predominantly Black and Latino neighborhoods. So we wanted to do more than a day of solidarity…..

Claims of employment discrimination and worker voice

Source: Keith A. Bender, John S. Heywood, Michael P. Kidd, Industrial Relations Journal, Early View, First published: 26 April 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Using the U.S. National Study of the Changing Workforce survey, we show that claims of racial and gender discrimination emerge less frequently in workplaces with established worker voice mechanisms. This result accords with the hypothesis that participation enhances perceptions of workplace fairness. We show that while having a supervisor of the same race or gender is associated with reduced discrimination claims, the role of voice tends to be larger when the race or gender of the supervisor is different from that of the worker. This suggests that voice may be particularly important in heterogeneous workplaces.

The Path to a Fair and Inclusive Society: Policies that Address Rising Inequality

Source: Justin Steil, Stephen Menendian, Samir Gambhir, University of California, Berkeley – Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society, Policy Brief, 2017

From the summary:
A major policy brief from the Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society offers a proven roadmap to end extreme inequality in the United States. The brief, entitled “The Path to a Fair and Inclusive Society: Policies that Address Rising Inequality,” names six basic solutions to tackle what may be the greatest problem of the 21st Century.

These solutions include:
-increasing the minimum wage
-expanding the Earned Income Tax
-building assets for working families
-investing in early childhood education
-making tax code more progressive
-ending racial segregation

Projected Year the Wage Gap Will Close by State

Source: Julie Anderson, Jessica Milli, Melanie Kruvelis, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Fact Sheet, R476, March 22, 2017

From the abstract:
If the earnings of women and men who are employed full-time, year-round change at the rate they have between 1959 and 2015, the gender wage gap in the United States will not close until 2059. The wage gap is projected to close first in Florida, with women achieving pay parity with men in 2038. In four states—North Dakota, Utah, Louisiana, and Wyoming—the wage gap will close in the 22nd century.   A girl born in the United States in 2017 has a life expectancy of 87 years.[1]  In 2082, when she turns age 65, a wage gap will still remain in 13 states.
Related:
The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2016; and by Race and Ethnicity
Source: Ariane Hegewisch, Emma Williams-Baron, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, IWPR #C456, April 4, 2017

The Gender Wage Gap 2016: Earnings Differences by Race and Ethnicity
Source: Ariane Hegewisch, Emma Williams-Baron, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, IWPR #C454, March 7, 2017

Equal Pay For Women Won’t Happen Until the 23rd Century, Study Says
Source: Rebecca Dancer, Teen Vogue, March 14, 2017

According to Institute for Women’s Policy Research data, it could take 232 years for all women to see equal pay, at current rates.

Your Boss’s Big Little Secret

Source: Rebecca Kolins Givan, Jacobin, April 4, 2017

You have a right to know how much your coworkers are paid — and if you want to close the wage gap, you should. …

….For most American workers, however, the salaries of their fellow workers remain a mystery. But it’s a mystery that can be solved, and the best way to do so is through collective bargaining. Most collective bargaining agreements include transparent pay scales where an employee can locate his or her salary based on job title, credentials, skills, seniority, experience, or some combination thereof. Pay under most collective bargaining agreements is open and transparent. Unions can eliminate wage disparities within a single employer and dramatically limit wage inequality even across employers. Collective bargaining agreements remove the ability for managers to set pay based on their own criteria which may be arbitrary, or influenced by implicit or explicit bias…..

What would MLK do if he were alive today: Six essential reads

Source: Kalpana Jain, The Conversation, March 20, 2017

March 21 marks the anniversary of the third protest march from Selma led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. that culminated on the steps of the Capitol in Montgomery, Alabama, demanding voting rights for African-Americans.

As doctoral candidate at University of California, Irvine, Mary Schmitt explains, Selma was “a moment in civil rights history that played a crucial role in the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act.”

The first march started on March 7, 1965, but ended in violence. The second march started on March 9. The third march started on March 21, with 3,200 people under the protection of federal troops. By the time the marchers reach the state Capitol in Montgomery on March 25, their numbers had swelled to 25,000.

Scholars writing for The Conversation have emphasized the relevance of King’s nonviolent – and successful – resistance movement today.

Here are some highlights from The Conversation’s coverage….
Related:
Martin Luther King’s Radical Legacy, From the Poor People’s Campaign to Black Lives Matter
Source: Osagyefo Uhuru Sekou, Dissent, January 15, 2017

Separate and Unequal in the Labor Market: Human Capital and the Jim Crow Wage Gap

Source: Celeste K. Carruthers, Marianne H. Wanamaker, Journal of Labor Economics, Ahead of Print, March 23, 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Competing explanations for the long-standing gap between black and white earnings attribute different weight to wage discrimination and human capital differences. Using new data on local school quality, we find that human capital played a predominant role in determining 1940 wage and occupational status gaps in the South despite entrenched racial discrimination in civic life and the lack of federal employment protections. The resulting wage gap coincides with the higher end of the range of estimates from the post–Civil Rights era. We estimate that truly “separate but equal” schools would have reduced wage inequality by 29%–48%.