US Union and Workers’ Movements, Past and Future

Source: Daniel Schneider, Judith Stepan-Norris, Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource, May 15, 2015

From the abstract:
The last half century of US labor movement history is characterized by dramatic decline in both density and (since 1979) real numbers. While unions and union federations in the mainstream union movement have attempted to adjust, developments outside their sphere have been especially prominent: the rise of independent unions and the initiation of alternative forms of workers movements. With union decline, community labor organizations [typified by Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN)], worker centers, and living wage campaigns have risen to fill the void. These alternate paths for worker representation, like other forms developed in the past, bring new tactics, new activists, and new links to labor struggles and may yet contribute to the future of labor movements in the United States.