Source: Roland Zullo, Labor Studies Journal, Vol. 37 no. 2, June 2012
From the abstract:
Trend analyses indicate that the union movement is becoming less white and more female. In this research, the author examines the transitions of persons in and out of the union movement in order to understand whether diversification is due to behavior or structure. Results indicate that African Americans transitioned comparatively faster than others from nonunion to union employment, even after controlling for industry and occupation. Latina/os also display evidence of an above-average preference for union representation, with transitions into unions suppressed by immigrant status. For women, the growing demographic numbers appear to be due to the relative stability of the industry or occupation in which persons are employed. In general, the findings for part-time workers, education, and annual trends point to an increasingly challenging environment for unionizing over the decade.