This policy brief examines the policy design, economic effects, and political ramifications of employer requirements. We focus in particular on what Congress can learn from the California experience, as well as from an independent cost and coverage analysis of the “Health Care for America” proposal–a national play-or-pay plan closely resembling current legislative initiatives that was developed by one of us (Hacker) with the support of the Economic Policy Institute. We begin in Part I by reviewing the key reasons for having a play-or-pay requirement. In Part II, we provide a set of recommendations, drawn from the California experience and the “Health Care for America” plan, for navigating the design and political issues raised by national play-or-pay bills. Finally, Part III examines the economic effects of an employer requirement. We conclude that the potential negative effects are modest, are outweighed by potential benefits, and could be easily addressed in the design of the requirement itself.