How Do Balanced Budget Rules Impact Fiscal Performance Based On Revenue Structure?: Evidence From U.S. States

Source: Sungchan Kim, Soyoung Park, State and Local Government Review, OnlineFirst, Published April 18, 2022
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From the abstract:
Revenue condition needs to be considered in the design of balanced budget rules (BBRs), because revenue stream, which varies across state governments, is an important factor in balancing the budget. Also, revenue factors may influence state responses to economic crises through the employment of BBRs.Thus, this study examines the influence of BBRs on states’ fiscal performance depending on revenue structure using a panel data set from 1997 to 2016. The results demonstrate that the strongest BBRs are effective in reducing deficit shocks, although this amplifies fiscal volatility. However, the weakest BBRs play a role in stabilizing volatility. Considering revenue structure, if a state government is concerned about deficit shocks, it would do well to adopt the strongest BBRs, with lower levels of own-source revenue. Conversely, if a state government wishes to pursue fiscal stabilization, it should adopt the weakest BBRs, with lower levels of own-source revenue and less diversified source.

An Antiracist Index for State Level Assessment

Source: Samantha June Larson, State and Local Government Review, OnlineFirst, Published March 24, 2022
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From the abstract:
In 2020, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security identified white supremacists as the most lethal threat in America. White supremacy is a system rooted in racist policies and ideas that produce and normalize racial inequities. Combatting white supremacism thus requires identification and promotion of antiracist policies, actions, and systemic changes. This study constructs an Antiracist Index comprised of 15 indicators to assess the degree to which American states exhibit antiracist conditions across political, economic, and cultural dimensions. Indices are rank-ordered for all 50 states, from Very High to Very Low scores. Results demonstrate that three indicators—self-defense laws, gun ownership, and support for Black Lives Matter—primarily impact both high and low ranking states. The Antiracism Index thus serves as an exploratory assessment tool which enables state-by-state comparisons, identification of antiracist indicators, and the ability to monitor changes in racism and antiracism moving forward.

Reckoning With Race and Gender in Public Administration and Public Policy: A Substantive Social Equity Turn

Source: Sanjay K. Pandey, Kathryn Newcomer, Leisha DeHart-Davis, Jasmine McGinnis Johnson, Norma M. Riccucci, Public Administration Review, Volume 82, Issue 3, May/June 2022
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From the abstract:
Promoting race-aware and gender-aware scholarship is essential for giving substance to social equity research. This review and introduction provides an account of one such initiative to promote race and gender scholarship through collaboration between Public Administration Review (PAR), and the Consortium of Race and Gender Scholars (CORGES), and introduces the PAR Race and Gender Symposium. CORGES is an informal group of scholars motivated by the pressing need to address issues of racial justice and gender justice in public administration and public policy scholarship. This PAR symposium is based on the CORGES inaugural conference, held virtually in September 2020. Conference organizers, with the help of Editor-in-Chief Jeremy Hall, devised and oversaw a thoughtful and detailed plan to provide developmental feedback before papers were submitted to PAR’s standard peer review process. The symposium is comprised of 14 research articles and 2 viewpoint contributions. In addition to describing symposium contributions, this review provides an account of CORGES origins and its ongoing intellectual and normative commitments on furthering inquiry on racializing and gendering, while also elaborating on the idea of everydayness of scholarly activism. CORGES, with a recently expanded board of advisors committed to centering public administration scholarship on race and gender, as well its intersection with other markers of oppression, continues to support academic research and public outreach on race and gender scholarship.

Representing Personal and Professional Identities in Policing: Sources of Strength and Conflict

Source: Andrea M. Headley, Public Administration Review, Volume 82, Issue 3, May/June 2022
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From the abstract:
Representing diverse identities in government is important for equal employment, symbolic benefits, and opportunities to improve public service outcomes. This article uses qualitative interviews with 32 frontline police officers to examine the ways in which personal and professional identities intersect to promote or impede those benefits. The findings highlight how holding similar sociodemographic identities with the public can be a source of strength as it pertains to promoting shared understanding and reducing the social distance that comes with identity incongruence. However, internal identity conflicts arise as White officers overcome culture shock and endure learning curves, whereas officers of color navigate the dual pressures of empathetic treatment (that comes with shared personal identity) versus arms-length treatment (that comes with professional identification). Even then, as seen in this study, the way officers treat and interact with the community is imperative and can overcome symbolic identity barriers.

Managerial Practice and Diversity Climate: The Roles of Workplace Voice, Centralization, and Teamwork

Source: Zhongnan Jiang, Leisha DeHart-Davis, Erin L. Borry, Public Administration Review, Volume 82, Issue 3, May/June 2022
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From the abstract:
Diversity climate—shared employee perceptions of the extent to which an organization is inclusive and fair—is of increasing interest to public administration scholars. While research has linked diversity climate to a range of employee and organizational outcomes, less is known about how common managerial practices affect diversity climate. This article addresses this gap by examining three such practices: workplace voice, centralized decision-making, and teamwork. Each is theoretically expected to act upon both the inclusion and fairness dimensions of diversity climate. We test these expectations using regression analysis of departmental-level data collected through surveys of four North Carolina public organizations. The results suggest that workplace voice and teamwork enhance diversity climate, while centralized decision-making diminishes it in workplaces with mostly white employees. Practically speaking, the results imply that common management techniques that benefit public organizations also foster positive diversity climates.

Intersectionality and Social Welfare: Avoidance and Unequal Treatment among Transgender Women of Color

Source: Adam M. Butz, Tia Sherèe Gaynor, Public Administration Review, Volume 82, Issue 3, May/June 2022
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From the abstract:
This research adds to the emergent literature on intersectionality and public administration through examining how transgender women of color (trans WOC) are interacting with U.S. social welfare offices. It is our contention that trans WOC, facing a compounded set of negative stereotypes derived from racial and gender identities, will be more likely than other transgender identifying persons to: (1) avoid seeking out public welfare benefits and (2) be more likely to report experiencing discriminatory treatment in social welfare offices. Using data from the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey we uncover evidence that trans WOC are more likely to avoid social welfare offices and face discrimination in social welfare offices. Scholars and administrators of social welfare programs, including Social Security related benefits, should be aware of the potential for public benefit avoidance and administrative discrimination directed toward historically marginalized groups and prioritize social equity considerations among clients facing compounded intersectional barriers.

Representative Bureaucracy Theory and the Implicit Embrace of Whiteness and Masculinity

Source: Shannon Portillo, Nicole Humphrey, Domonic A. Bearfield, Public Administration Review, Volume 82, Issue 3, May/June 2022

From the abstract:
Throughout much of representative bureaucracy literature, scholars have primarily focused on the representation of people seen as other in the professional workforce—people of color and women. However, whiteness and masculinity have been central to the development of public administration as a field of scholarship and practice. As a field, we have often avoided explicit discussions regarding the impact whiteness and masculinity. We argue that silences around race and gender have significant implications. Using representative bureaucracy as a frame, we seek to highlight how acknowledging whiteness and masculinity in our scholarship can help provide a more comprehensive understanding of race and gender in public administration.

Is There a Glass Cliff in Local Government Management? Examining the Hiring and Departure of Women

Source: Lang Kate Yang, Laura Connolly, Jennifer M. Connolly, Public Administration Review, Volume 82, Issue 3, May/June 2022
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From the abstract:
Women are underrepresented in public sector leadership positions, including municipal management. We examine one explanation that may contribute to gender inequity in the profession—a “glass cliff” phenomenon whereby councils are more likely to hire women as managers during difficult times, increasing the likelihood for women to fail in the position. Using original observational data on municipal managers in Florida, we test whether municipalities are more likely to hire women during times of fiscal stress and whether women are more likely than men to leave the position if municipal finances do not improve. Our results show that increasing budget deficits are associated with municipalities hiring women as managers. Post-appointment, a lack of improvement in the deficit condition is associated with a higher probability of women, but not men, leaving the position. A glass cliff in municipal management could be one factor that hinders women from advancing within the field.

The Role of Gender in Government and Nonprofit Workplaces: An Experimental Analysis of Rule Compliance and Supervisor Trust

Source: Jaclyn Piatak, Jared McDonald, Zachary Mohr, Public Administration Review, Volume 82, Issue 3, May/June 2022
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From the abstract:
The underrepresentation of women in leadership positions persists. Existing research examines barriers women face in climbing organizational hierarchies, but we know less about women who break past the glass ceiling. Once women obtain supervisory positions, do they face additional hurdles in managing employees? Specifically, how does gender, gender congruence, and rule formalization influence employee rule compliance and trust? Using a survey experiment across both government and nonprofit contexts, we find that both men and women are more likely to trust men managers, but this gender gap is mitigated when rules are written. Gender congruence plays a role for rule compliance, where both men and women are more compliant when the supervisor matches their gender, while gender congruence is only a significant factor for enhancing trust for men. The findings advance role incongruence theory and have implications for the challenges women leaders face in terms of trust and rule following.

Beyond a Numbers Game? Impact of Diversity and Inclusion on the Perception of Organizational Justice

Source: Trang Hoang, Jiwon Suh, Meghna Sabharwal, Public Administration Review, Volume 82, Issue 3, May/June 2022
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From the abstract:
Organizational justice, diversity, and inclusion are central tenets of social equity in public organizations. This study explores the effects of diversity management and inclusive leadership practices on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice. Drawing from FedScope and the 2019 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey, we find that an increase in the number of women and Black, Indigenous and other People of Color (BIPOC) is not sufficient to improve employees’ perceptions toward organizational justice; rather, as workforce diversity increases, the perception of organizational justice decreases when the relationship is moderated by an active form of diversity management, such as an organization’s policies and programs to promote heterogeneous workgroups. The results suggest that as workplace diversity increases, inclusive leadership practices positively influence organizational justice. The findings also indicate that the impact of diversity and inclusion on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice differs by gender and race.