Social Exclusion: The State of State U for Black Students

Source: Mark Huelsman, Dēmos, December 2018

From the Introduction and Selected Findings:
….These stories, and countless untold others, follow a familiar pattern. A student of color behaves as millions of other students have—finding a quiet campus space to eat, napping while studying, attending a party, queueing in line for a campus tour. Passers-by and, in some cases, law enforcement officers who carry with them the capacity for lethal force, subject this behavior to extra scrutiny.

These students and employees posed no threat to safety and were not causing any disturbance. In fact, most of them were sitting in solitude before being interrupted by law enforcement. But other students or employees view these students with suspicion precisely because these they do not see these students as a typical or ordinary part of their campus experience. They are not the image many people—including their peers—conjure when they think of the American college student. They are black or brown, Native American and immigrants, and their very existence in an elite academic setting makes others incredulous…..

…..This exclusion is true even for elite public institutions, which still have a basic responsibility to be representative of and responsive to the needs of their state populations and economies. It goes without saying that each state’s flagship campus and other selective institutions have a great deal of political power and cultural cachet. Thus, it is worth interrogating how they are doing at increasing the enrollment of black students, 50 years after the civil rights movement, at a time when higher education is more important than ever to achieving a stable life. We all benefit when these institutions are affordable, accessible, welcoming, and safe for all of their state’s students.

This brief takes a look at whether selective public colleges have made progress toward these basic goals. We find that, unfortunately, most states have very far to go in making their selective public institutions representative, and thus truly public. In many cases, institutions are less representative than they were a generation ago:….

Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2019 to 2028

Source: Congressional Budget Office, pub. no. 54667, December 2018

From the summary:
CBO periodically issues a volume of options—this year’s installment presents 121—that would decrease federal spending or increase federal revenues. CBO’s website allows users to filter options by topic, date, and other categories.

Since 2007, federal debt held by the public has more than doubled in relation to the size of the economy, and it will keep growing significantly if the large annual budget deficits projected under current law come to pass. The Congress faces an array of policy choices as it confronts the challenges posed by such large and growing debt. To help inform lawmakers, the Congressional Budget Office periodically issues a compendium of policy options that would help reduce the deficit, reporting the estimated budgetary effects of those options and highlighting some arguments for and against them.

This report, the latest in the series, presents 121 options that would decrease federal spending or increase federal revenues over the next 10 years (see Summary Table below). Of those options, 112 are presented in the main body of the report, and most of those 112 would save $10 billion or more over that period. The remaining 9 options are presented in an appendix and would generally have smaller budgetary effects…..

Underrepresented, Underemployed: In the library-job search, some face special barriers

Source: Anne Ford, American Libraries, Vol. 49 nos. 11/12, November/December 2018

….White’s concerns represent only some of the potential obstacles that people from underrepresented demographic groups face when applying for positions in the library field—a field that remains about 86% white and 97% able-bodied (per the 2017 ALA Demographic Survey, which did not ask about sexual orientation.)

Because the library profession has been trying to diversify itself for a long time—particularly racially, and particularly through initiatives such as diversity task forces and diversity fellowships—some may be surprised that people from underrepresented communities still encounter barriers to library employment….

The Salary Question: Negotiating the ins and outs of earning a fair compensation

Source: American Libraries, Vol. 49 nos. 11/12, November/December 2018

For more than 10 years, David Connolly has interacted with job seekers and employers in his role as recruitment ad sales manager with ALA JobLIST, the online career center administered by American Libraries, ACRL’s College and Research Libraries News magazine, and ALA’s Office for Human Resource Development and Recruitment. We asked Connolly for his insights on salary negotiations, including the biggest mistake applicants make regarding salary…..

Unions 101: What library unions do—and don’t do—for workers

Source: Carrie Smith, American Libraries, Vol. 49 nos. 11/12, November/December 2018

….According to a report from the AFL-CIO’s Department for Professional Employees, in 2017 union librarians and library assistants earned on average 31% more per week than their nonunion equivalents. Union library workers are also more likely to have health coverage, retirement plans, and sick leave, the report states.

Yet library unions are as diverse as libraries themselves. Public library workers may be organized in a library-specific union that represents librarians and other staff, or they may be a part of a larger municipal union that represents city or county workers. Academic librarians can find themselves part of a larger faculty union or librarians-only bargaining unit, while school librarians are often members of the local teachers union. Most unions don’t include members in supervisory positions.

The landscape is complex, and it’s difficult to paint a picture of library unionism with one brush, but there are commonalities workers should know…..

Default Study: 2017 U.S. Public Finance Transportation Default Study And Rating Transitions

Source: S&P Global Ratings, November 19, 2018
(subscription required)

Although ratings in the U.S. public finance (USPF) transportation sector tend to be lower than in other areas of U.S. municipal finance, the sector is among the most stable. In addition, transportation ratings are less likely than other USPF ratings to be raised, reflecting economic and competitive pressures.

Point/Counterpoint: Should Governments Subsidize the Construction of New Professional Sports Stadiums?

Source: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 38 Issue 1, Winter 2019
(subscription required)

Articles include:
Should the Construction of New Professional Sports Facilities Be Subsidized?
Source: Brad R. Humphreys, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 38 Issue 1, Winter 2019Is There a Case for Subsidizing Sports Stadiums?
Source: Victor Matheson, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 38 Issue 1, Winter 2019
(subscription required)

The case in favor of subsidizing large sports facilities is much harder to make than the one against. The peer-reviewed literature typically finds little or no evidence that the construction of new professional sports facilities results in significant increases in any type of measurable economic activity including personal income, wages, employment, tax revenues, or tourist spending (Coates & Humphreys, 2008). In addition, the privately funded consulting reports that frequently accompany stadium proposals, and which invariably tout large economic benefits from subsidized stadiums and arenas, have been shown to suffer from significant theoretical flaws that make their conclusions suspect at best, and simply false at worst (Crompton, 1995). In fact, some academic economists suggest, only partially in jest, that if one wants to know what the true economic impact of a stadium project will be, simply take whatever number the consultants project and then move the decimal point one place to the left.

However, in specific circumstances, it may be possible to justify some level of public subsidies for the construction of sports venues. This should not be interpreted to mean that the optimal level of public spending is the roughly two-thirds of average stadium construction costs that taxpayers paid for during the period from 1990 through 2008 or cwn the roughly one-third of stadium construction costs that taxpayers paid for on average since the Great Recession in 2008. Rather, the only claim being made here is that the optimal level of funding may be higher than zero percent…..

Did California Paid Family Leave Impact Infant Health?

Source: Ariel Marek Pihl, Gaetano Basso, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 38 Issue 1, Winter 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
The effects of paid parental leave policies on infant health have yet to be established. In this paper we investigate these effects by exploiting the introduction of California Paid Family Leave (PFL), the first program in the U.S. that specifically provides working parents with paid time off for bonding with a newborn. We measure health using the full census of infant hospitalizations in California and a set of control states, and implement a differences‐in‐differences approach. Our results suggest a decline in infant admissions, which is concentrated among those causes that are potentially affected by closer childcare (and to a lesser extent breastfeeding). Other admissions that are unlikely to be affected by parental leave do not exhibit the same pattern.

Election 2018: Midterm Analysis

Source: Tim Storey and Wendy Underhill, State Legislatures Magazine, November-December 2018

Republicans Still Control Most of the Nation’s Legislative Seats, but the Gap Between the Parties Narrowed Considerably

Related:
Voters Make Policy
Source: Patrick Potyondy, State Legislatures Magazine, November-December 2018

Citizens Had Their Say on More Than 150 Ballot Measures That Could Transform Their States