Registered Apprenticeship and Career Advancement for Low-Wage Service Workers

Source: Daniel Kuehn, Economic Development Quarterly, OnlineFirst, Published March 29, 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Registered apprenticeship is a time-tested approach to building technical skills through a combination of classroom and closely supervised on-the-job training. This study explores the growth of registered apprenticeship in service occupations over the past two decades and uses administrative data on registered apprentices to identify the factors associated with successful program completion and exit wage growth. Key program characteristics vary across different service occupations, but shorter apprenticeship programs operated by single employers working jointly with a union seem to be consistently associated with higher completion rates. Partnerships with community colleges fail to generate higher completion rates, although for many service occupations these partnerships are associated with higher exit wages.

The Role of Training and Work-Related Injury on Home Health Workers’ Job Satisfaction: Analysis of the National Home and Hospice Care Survey

Source: Hanadi Hamadi, Janice C. Probst, M. Mahmud Khan, Aurora Tafili, Home Health Care Management & Practice, OnlineFirst, Published April 13, 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
The purpose of this study was to describe personal, job, agency, environmental, and ergonomic factors that affect job satisfaction among home health workers (HHWs). A cross-sectional design was conducted, and data from the National Home and Hospice Care Survey (N = 3,274) were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model (generalized structural equation model). HHWs with excellent training knowledge were about 1.5 times more likely to report a higher degree of job satisfaction compared with those with poor training knowledge, and those who reported a work-related injury were 66% more likely to report lower job satisfaction score. Job satisfaction is associated with work environment, leadership support, and work-related training. Future research and a follow-up survey are needed to understand HHWs’ workforce and be better positioned to meet their need so that they may meet the need of the aging population.

Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among Traffic police: A Review

Source: Leela Paudel, Naresh Manandhar, Sunil Kumar Joshi, International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, Vol. 8 no. 2, 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Workplace environment plays an important role in the health of the working population. The risk of adverse effects on health becomes high with the increase in duration of exposure to occupational hazards. Traffic police personnel are vulnerable to such situations. They undergo various hazards ranging from road injuries, physical hazards, biological hazards, chemical hazards, ergonomic hazards and psychological stress while they are at work. They have to keep on standing on same place throughout the duty hours, which also increases the risk of musculoskeletal problem. There have been very few researches to explore the situation of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms in traffic police. Recently, work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were the main cause of sickness absenteeism, reduction in productivity, and chronic occupational disabilities in traffic police have received much attention. Thus, this review has been designed to help the health care professional and occupational health and safety professionals to know the most prone body areas for Musculoskeletal Disorders so as to plan for ergonomic modification and improve quality of life of Traffic Police Personnel. It will also help in uplifting musculoskeletal health for Traffic Police Personnel.

The Architecture of a Basic Income

Source: Miranda Perry Fleischer, Daniel Jacob Hemel, University of Chicago Law Review, Forthcoming, Last revised: March 27, 2019

From the abstract:
The notion of a universal basic income (“UBI”) has captivated academics, entrepreneurs, policymakers, and ordinary citizens in recent months. Pilot studies of a UBI are underway or in the works on three continents. And prominent voices from across the ideological spectrum have expressed support for a UBI or one of its variants, including libertarian Charles Murray, Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes, labor leader Andy Stern, and—most recently—former President Barack Obama. Although even the most optimistic advocates for a UBI will acknowledge that nationwide implementation lies years away, the design of a basic income will require sustained scholarly attention. This article seeks to advance the conversation among academics and policymakers about UBI implementation.

Our prior work has focused on the philosophical foundations of a basic income; here, we build up from those foundations to identify the practical building blocks of a large-scale cash transfer program. After canvassing the considerations relevant to the design of a UBI, we arrive at a set of specific recommendations for policymakers. We propose a UBI of $6000 per person per year, paid to all citizens and lawful permanent residents via direct deposit in biweekly installments. We argue—contrary to other UBI proponents—that children and seniors should be included, that adjustments for household size and cost of living should be rejected, that recipients should have a limited ability to use future payments as collateral for short- and medium-term loans, and that the Social Security Administration should carry out the program. We also explain how a UBI could be financed through the consolidation of existing cash and near-cash transfer programs as well as the imposition of a relatively modest surtax on all earners.

Importantly, the building blocks of a UBI do not necessarily determine its outward face. By this, we mean that economically identical programs can be described in very different ways—e.g., as a UBI with no phaseout, a UBI that phases out with income, and a “negative income tax”—without altering any of the essential features. To be sure, packaging matters to the public perception of a UBI, and we consider reasons why some characterizations of the program may prove more popular than others. Our article seeks to sort the building blocks of a UBI out from the cosmetic components, thereby clarifying which elements of a UBI shape implementation and which ones affect only the outward appearance.

Billionaire Taxes

Source: Michael Simkovic, University of Southern California Gould School of Law, USC Law Legal Studies Paper No. 19-7, Last revised: March 27, 2019

From the abstract:
Targeted ultra-high net worth wealth taxes can fund reductions in taxes on wages. Wealth taxes are harder to avoid than existing capital gains taxes and inheritance taxes, and can be more precisely targeted toward extreme wealth. Exit taxes to prevent capital flight are consistent with business law principles governing partnerships. Valuation disputes can be managed through existing property tax mechanisms and through private law provisions called “shotgun clauses.”

Most experts believe that wealth taxes are constitutional. The critical difference between wealth taxes and income taxes, the realization requirement, exists for administrative convenience, not as a constitutional requirement. Constitutional challenges can be discouraged by including in wealth tax legislation a savings clause that would create as a backup an economically equivalent income tax.

Not-for-profit and public healthcare – US – Preliminary medians – Profitability holds steady as revenues and expenses converge

Source: Rita Sverdlik, Nansis Hayek, Lisa Goldstein, Kendra M. Smith, Moody’s, Not-for-profit and public healthcare – US, Sector Profile, April 25, 2019
(subscription required)

Not-for-profit and public hospitals are showing signs of stability with profitability margins holding relatively steady and leverage metrics slightly improving, per our preliminary 2018 medians. The revenue growth rate edged ahead of expenses for the first time since 2015,driven by M&A, steady patient volumes and revenue cycle improvements. Cost-cutting initiatives and lower increases in drug prices contributed to a slower expense growth rate. A weak equity market in 2018 contributed to a slowdown in absolute cash growth while days cash on hand declined.

Related:
U.S. Not-For-Profit Health Care Rating And Outlook Change Drivers, First-Quarter 2019
Source: S&P Global Ratings, April 30, 2019
(subscription required)

S&P Global Ratings performed a review of factors and how they influenced, positively or negatively, the credit profile of the U.S. not-for-profit health care providers it reviewed in the first quarter of 2019. From Jan. 1 to March 31, operating performance was a driver in 57% of the total 35 rating actions, followed by affiliations or deepened integration of already-affiliated organizations (23%), business position and utilization trends (17%), and balance sheet metrics (17%).

Growing school pension burdens will require more state support

Source: Matthew Butler, Joshua Grundleger, Emily RaimesMoody’s, Sector In-Depth, State government – US, April 9, 2019
(subscription required)

Recent actions by states signal growing recognition that as pension burdens — unfunded liabilities and annual costs — escalate for K-12 school districts, state assistance will likely need to increase. California (Aa3 positive), Indiana (Aaa stable) and Oregon (Aa1 stable) all recently proposed budget legislation that would boost school funding by making increased payments to teacher pension plans on behalf of districts. The proposals call for one-time contributions to the pension plans rather than recurring pension contribution support on behalf of local districts like Colorado (Aa1 stable) and Michigan (Aa1 stable) have recently committed to provide. Additional states are likely to increase funding for teacher pensions,reflecting the growing credit risks underfunded plans present.

Women in Congress 1917-2019: Service Dates and Committee Assignments by Member, and Lists by State and Congress

Source: Jennifer E. Manning, Ida A. Brudnick, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report, RL30261, Updated April 9, 2019

In total 365 women have been elected or appointed to Congress, 247 Democrats and 118 Republicans. These figures include six nonvoting Delegates, one each from Guam, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and American Samoa, and two from the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as one Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. Of these 365 women, there have been
– 309 (211 Democrats, 98 Republicans) women elected only to the House of Representatives;
– 40 (25 Democrats, 15 Republicans) women elected or appointed only to the Senate; and
– 16 (11 Democrats, 5 Republicans) women who have served in both houses.

A record 131 women currently serve in the 116th Congress. Of these 131 women, there are
– 25 in the Senate (17 Democrats and 8 Republicans);
– 102 Representatives in the House (89 Democrats and 13 Republicans); and
– 4 women in the House (2 Democrats and 2 Republicans) who serve as Delegates or Resident Commissioner, representing the District of Columbia, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.

This report includes brief biographical information, committee assignments, dates of service, district information, and listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 365 women who have been elected or appointed to Congress. It will be updated when there are relevant changes in the makeup of Congress

Status of State Medicaid Expansion Decisions: Interactive Map

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, April 26, 2019

To date, 37 states (including DC) have adopted the Medicaid expansion and 14 states have not adopted the expansion. Current status for each state is based on KFF tracking and analysis of state expansion activity.

To view this data in a table format, click here. To download a Powerpoint slide of the expansion status map, click here.

Learn for Free: Law Courses & Lectures Online

Source: Inner Temple Library, Updated April 2019

From interactive courses spanning several weeks to quick introductory tasters, there is a huge amount of free learning materials available online. Covering a range of topics and jurisdictions, there’s something for everyone (so long as you’re into law)!
MOOCs, Tasters and Courseware
Lecture Collections and Podcasts
Open Access Books and Journals

Courses include:
Labor Law and Employment Discrimination
Missouri State University on YouTube

‘Legal, regulatory, and ethical issues related to employer-employee relationship, including employment-at-will doctrine, discrimination and union contracts.’

Law, Social Movements, and Public Policy: Comparative and International Experience
MIT Open Courseware

‘This course studies the interaction between law, courts, and social movements in shaping domestic and global public policy. Examines how groups mobilize to use law to affect change and why they succeed and fail. The class uses case studies to explore the interplay between law, social movements, and public policy in current areas such as gender, race, labor, trade, environment, and human rights. Finally, it introduces the theories of public policy, social movements, law and society, and transnational studies.’

Technology, Law, and the Working Environment
MIT Open Courseware

‘This course addresses the relationship between technology-related problems and the law applicable to work environment. The National Labor Relations Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, state worker’s compensation, and suits by workers in the courts are discussed in the course. Problems related to occupational health and safety, collective bargaining as a mechanism for altering technology in the workplace, job alienation, productivity, and the organization of work are also addressed. Prior courses or experience in environmental, public health, or law-related areas will be useful.’

Law
Cornell University on iTunesU

‘Andrew D. White, Cornell’s first president, established a law school to produce “not swarms of hastily prepared pettifoggers, but a fair number of well-trained, large-minded, morally-based lawyers in the best sense.” Cornell Law graduates are found in major law firms and corporate law departments; and as public defenders or winning discrimination cases. Undergraduates can take courses in labor, business, and international law, and study the impact of a legal system on societies and individuals.’

Gender and the Law in U.S. History
MIT Open Courseware

‘This subject explores the legal history of the United States as a gendered system. It examines how women have shaped the meanings of American citizenship through pursuit of political rights such as suffrage, jury duty, and military service, how those political struggles have varied for across race, religion, and class, as well as how the legal system has shaped gender relations for both women and men through regulation of such issues as marriage, divorce, work, reproduction, and the family. The course readings will draw from primary and secondary materials in American history, as well as some court cases. However, the focus of the class is on the broader relationship between law and society, and no technical legal knowledge is required or assumed.’

Introduction to Alternative Dispute Resolution
Alison

‘The free online course Introduction to Alternative Dispute Resolution describes the benefits of using ADR as a conflict resolution method, how to prepare for an ADR process, and how confidentiality is maintained during the ADR process. The course also outlines both the common and uncommon methods of ADR and the situations in which each method can be used.’

Introduction to Copyright Law in America
MIT on Alison

‘With the wide-spread use of the Internet copyright has become a very important issue for publishers of books, music, software, films, television programmes and many other industries. This free online course is an introduction to copyright law as practised in the United States, however, the principles and concepts will be of interest to legal professionals in other jurisdictions. The course reviews the structure of copyright under federal law, the basics of legal research and legal citations. It examines copyright and its applications in the music and broadcasting industries, and looks at legal cases involving examples such as Napster, Grokster and peer-to-peer file sharing services. It also reviews software licensing, and the General Public License and free software. This course will be of great interest to legal and business professionals who would like to learn more about copyright law and how it is practised in the United States, and to students who are pursuing a career in the legal professions and would like to learn more about this very important legal topic.’