Sexual Harassment and Title VII: Selected Legal Issues

Source: Christine J. Back, Wilson C. Freeman, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report, R45155, April 9, 2018

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) generally prohibits discrimination in the workplace, but does not contain an express prohibition against harassment. The Supreme Court, however, has interpreted the statute to prohibit certain forms of harassment, including sexual harassment. Since first recognizing the viability of a Title VII harassment claim in a unanimous 1986 decision, the Court has also established legal standards for determining when offensive conduct amounts to a Title VII violation and when employers may be held liable for such actionable harassment, and created an affirmative defense available to employers under certain circumstances.

Given this judicially created paradigm for analyzing sexual harassment under Title VII, this report examines key Supreme Court precedent addressing Title VII sexual harassment claims, the statutory interpretation and rationales reflected in these decisions, and examples of lower federal court decisions applying this precedent. The report also discusses various types of harassment recognized by the Supreme Court—such as “hostile work environment,” quid pro quo, constructive discharge, and same-sex harassment—and explores tensions, disagreements, or apparent inconsistencies among federal courts when analyzing these claims.

Finally, this report examines sexual harassment in the context of retaliation. Does Title VII’s anti-retaliation provision protect an employee from being fired, for example, for reporting sexual harassment? How do federal courts approach the analysis of a Title VII claim alleging that an employer retaliated against an employee by subjecting him or her to harassment? The report discusses Supreme Court and federal appellate court precedent relevant to these questions….

A Seattle Library Employee Was Stuck With a Needle. Should Branches Make Changes to Deal With the Opioid Epidemic?

Source: Erica C. Barnett, Seattle Magazine, March 8, 2018

The Seattle Public Library system and the King County Public Library system already take very different approaches to drug use and needle disposal in public restrooms.

Related:
Once It Was Overdue Books. Now Librarians Fight Overdoses.
Source: Annie Correal, New York Times, February 28, 2018

….The opioid epidemic is reshaping life in America, including at the local public library, where librarians are considering whether to carry naloxone to battle overdoses. At a time when the public is debating arming teachers, it is another example of an unlikely group being enlisted to fight a national crisis…..

Brockton Public Library making changes to cope with opioid crisis
Source: Jason Law, Boston 25 News, March 1, 2018

Public libraries are getting creative when it comes to dealing with the opioid crisis. The library director in Brockton says he’s taken steps to keep addicts out of his library. The bathrooms inside the Brockton Public Library will now be locked at all times. To get in, you need a key, which is kept by the reference desk…..

Librarians Learn How To Save Those Overdosing On Opioids
Source: CBS New York, March 1, 2018

….Librarians and other staff members are being trained on how to revive someone who’s overdosing. Matt Pfisterer is the director of the Middletown-Thrall Library in Middletown and he knows exactly where to find and how to use their Narcan kits…..

Lawmaker wants to bring anti-overdose medication to Michigan libraries
Source: Noah Fromson, WZZM13, February 18, 2018

A Michigan Senate bill would bring the fight the opioid crisis in public libraries.

Library system cuts hours, reduces purchases so county can spend more on opioid crisis
Source: Rick Lee, York Daily Record, February 7, 2018

York County’s free public library system is downsizing — trimming hours, employee schedules and the purchase of new releases — because of a $300,000 budget cut. That cut came in December when county commissioners diverted more resources to combat the heroin and opioid crisis that has gripped the city, county, state and nation…..

How The Everett Public Library Is ‘Not Turning A Blind Eye’ To The Opioid Crisis
Source: Jennifer Wing, KNKX, February 10, 2018

…..The two libraries that make up the Everett Public Library System have been quietly dealing with people who are addicted to heroin using these safe, public spaces to shoot up.  The Everett Library System is accepting this as the new normal.  But, at the same time, it is playing a larger role in getting people the help that they need…..

Opioid Crisis: Libraries, Resources, Context and Data
Source: WebJunction, August 17, 2017

State of America’s Libraries Report 2018

Source: American Library Association, April 2018

From the summary:
The State of America’s Libraries report, an annual summary of library trends released during National Library Week, April 8 – 14, outlines statistics and issues affecting all types of libraries. The report affirms the invaluable role libraries and library workers play within their communities by leading efforts to transform lives through education and lifelong learning.During this time of rapid social change, libraries of all types are providing welcoming spaces to an increasingly diverse population; working with the community to offer social service support and health resources, career and small business development assistance; and combating fake news by providing tools to assess and evaluate news sources.

Related:
Flipbook Version
Press Release
Executive Summary
Academic Libraries
School Libraries
Public Libraries
Issues & Trends
National Issues & Trends
Resources
Contributors

The Worst States for Women’s Lifetime Wage Gap

Source: Jasmine Tucker, National Women’s Law Center, April 10, 2018

Families depend on women’s wages now more than ever. But a woman working full time, year round is typically paid just 80 cents for every dollar her male counterpart is paid. This gap, which persists by educational attainment and occupation, amounts to a loss of $10,086 per year for the typical woman working full time, year round, and today, April 10th, is the day her pay catches up to men’s in 2017 alone.

For a typical woman, this wage gap adds up to a staggering loss of $403,440 over a lifetime of work. And depending on a woman’s race or ethnicity and where she lives, the situation can be much, much worse.
Here are the worst states for women’s earnings losses over a lifetime…..

The Economic Status of Women in the States

Source: Julie Anderson, Jennifer Clark, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Fact Sheet, IWPR# R532, March 2018

From the summary:
This Fact Sheet presents findings from analysis of the Employment & Earnings Index and Poverty & Opportunity Index of The Status of Women in the States series, a comprehensive project that presents and analyzes data for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The state grades, rankings, and data provided on these two measures of women’s economic status provide critical information to identify areas of progress for women in states across the nation and pinpoint where additional improvements are still needed. The state-by-state grades are based on composite indices first developed by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research in 1996. For a complete discussion of data sources and methodology, and to find fact sheets on the economic status of women in each state, please visit the interactive Status of Women in the States website at statusofwomendata.org.

Related:
The Economic Status of Women in the U.S.: What Has Changed in the Last 20 – 40 Years
Source: Heidi Hartmann, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Presentation, March 28, 2018

Wage Gap Will Cost Millennial Women $1 Million Over their Careers

Source: Jeff Hayes, Heidi Hartmann, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, Quick Figures, IWPR# Q069, April 2018

From the summary:
Millennial women are the most educated generation of women in the United States and are now more likely than men to have a college degree. At the same time, progress on closing the gender wage gap has stalled for nearly two decades, indicating that unequal pay continues to be a challenge to new generations of women workers.

Equal Pay Day 2018: How to Negotiate at Your First Job

Source: Marissa Miller, Teen Vogue, April 10, 2018

Not negotiating is not an option. …

….Women continue to make an average of 80 cents for every man’s dollar, but research shows everyone wins with gender-based pay parity. The McKinsey Global Institute found that moving towards a more egalitarian workforce could add up to $4.3 trillion in annual GDP by 2025. But at the rate we’re going, the Institute for Women’s Policy Research finds women will only see pay checks equal to those of their male counterparts in 232 years. (And if that sounds bad, remember that women of color, on average, face much larger pay gaps than white women. While Asian women have the smallest gap between their wages and those of white men, the AAUW reports that Hispanic women average 54 percent and black women 63 percent of what white men make.)

Thankfully, trailblazers like Libby Leffler, VP of membership at SoFi, are working at the local level to enact real change. With stops on her resume including Google and Facebook, the business executive has negotiated her salary at every position she’s held with the expectation that her employees will to do the same (and as Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg’s former business lead, she’s fluent in the language of Leaning In). In honor of Equal Pay Day, April 10, Libby talks to Teen Vogue about everything from negotiating your worth to never taking your group texts for granted…..