Some employers offer addiction-treatment programs for qualified job candidates.
Source: Lois James, Natalie Todak, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Online First, June 12, 2018
From the abstract:
To examine the prevalence of Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a sample of prison employees, investigate risk factors, and explore protective factors for PTSD.
We surveyed 355 Washington State Department of Corrections employees. The survey included the PTSD checklist for the DSM‐5 (PCL‐5), the Critical Incident History Questionnaire, and the Work Environment Inventory.
We found 19% of the sample met the criteria for diagnosable PTSD. Several risk factors were associated with a higher PCL‐5 score, including exposure to critical incidents, and having greater ambiguity in the job role. Being happy with job assignments and having positive relationships with supervisors and coworkers were associated with decreased PCL‐5 score.
Prison employees have a PTSD rate equivalent to Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and higher than police officers, suggesting the importance of developing programs for promoting resilience to stress, incorporating the knowledge gained on risk, and protective factors.
The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) program provides financial assistance for water infrastructure projects, including projects to build and upgrade wastewater and drinking water treatment systems. Congress established the WIFIA program in the Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014 (WRRDA 2014, P.L. 113-121).
The WIFIA concept is modeled after a similar program that finances transportation projects, the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program. Proponents of the WIFIA approach, including water utility organizations, cite several potential benefits
• WIFIA provides credit assistance to large water infrastructure projects that may otherwise have difficulty obtaining financing.
• WIFIA provides credit assistance, namely direct loans, at U.S. Treasury rates, potentially lowering the cost of capital for borrowers.
• WIFIA assistance has less of a federal budgetary effect than conventional project grants that are not repaid, because only the subsidy cost of a loan (representing the presumed default rate on loans) is required to be appropriated.
• WIFIA support limits the federal government’s exposure to default, because projects must be found creditworthy with a revenue stream for repayment to be eligible for assistance.
On the other hand, opponents of the WIFIA approach, including organizations that represent state environmental agency officials, have cited several concerns
• Federal funding for a WIFIA program could have a detrimental effect on federal support for established State Revolving Fund (SRF) programs that provide the largest source of water infrastructure assistance today.
• If WIFIA funding resulted in a decrease in SRF assistance, smaller projects may face financing challenges.
• The Congressional Budget Office has warned that the future costs of a WIFIA program to the federal budget may be underestimated.
An understanding of economic indicators and their significance is seen as essential to the formulation of economic policies. These indicators, or statistics, provide snapshots of an economy’s health as well as starting points for economic analysis. This report contains a list of selected authoritative U.S. government sources of economic indicators, such as gross domestic product (GDP), income, inflation, and labor force (including employment and unemployment) statistics.
Additional content includes related resources, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and links to external glossaries.
Source: Geiguen Shin, Jeremy L. Hall, Economic Development Quarterly, First Published June 6, 2018
From the abstract:
Functional theory suggests that each level of government expands in the arena in which it can best perform, reducing the price of federalism. Focusing on the functional pattern of American federalism, we suggest that increased federal welfare spending increases state government performance in the “new economy” development policy areas by helping states minimize welfare costs and divert more own-source resources into economic development. The central focus is on the direct and indirect empirical relationships between federal welfare spending and state new economy performance. The authors use an index of innovation capacity that reflects the cumulative performance of a myriad of overlapping and mutually dependent state policies intended to bring about new economy development; this index measures state new economy development performance by focusing on the observable outputs of such polices rather than the adoption, implementation, or substance of individual policy choices. Mediating variables, such as state fiscal comfort and administrative capacity, measure the indirect impact of federal welfare spending on state new economy performance. The authors find that federal welfare spending stimulates state new economy development directly, but also indirectly through its positive impact on both state fiscal comfort and administrative capacity. The findings suggest that federal intergovernmental transfers continue to be an important policy mechanism with spillover effects for state economies.
From the abstract:
Education is highly valued in the United States as a means to acquire skills and experience that allow individuals to realize greater earnings over the course of their working lives. The value placed on education is evidenced by the fact that 89 percent of people 25 years and older have completed high school, and 60 percent have studied beyond the high school level. The value placed on education is also seen in the increase in college enrollment over time, from 2.4 million students in 1955 to 19.1 million students in 2015. While enrollment has increased over the long run, enrollment has increased and decreased within this long-term increase. This report provides an overview of postsecondary enrollment during one of these periods, covering the years preceding and since the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, using data collected in the Current Population Survey (CPS). It examines the postsecondary enrollment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics, such as age, sex, and race and Hispanic origin.
….The idea of a robot tax has bubbled up over the past couple of years, thanks to the backing of some high-profile figures, proposing it as a way of trying to prevent all the benefits of automation from flowing to a tiny slice of wealthy people.
Benoît Hamon — a socialist candidate in the French presidential elections last year — made a robot tax a plank in his campaign. Perhaps the most famous advocate is Microsoft billionaire Bill Gates. He told Quartz last year, “Right now, the human worker who does, say, $50,000 worth of work in a factory, that income is taxed and you get income tax, social security tax, all those things. If a robot comes in to do the same thing, you’d think that we’d tax the robot at a similar level.”
He says he believes taxing machines could slow the pace of automation, giving people a chance to retrain and giving governments time to put in place policies to protect people from intensifying inequality…..
…. Speculation about what a Janus ruling in favor of the plaintiffs will mean for teachers unions has been rampant. Many, if not most, of the analysts who follow education policy and organized labor believe that the ruling will result in decreased power for teachers unions. The logic behind this assumption is simple: teachers unions will lose dues revenue because membership will decrease and former agency-fee payers will cease paying fees for union services. With fewer resources, teachers unions will have less ability to exert their influence in local, state, and federal elections and at the bargaining table. Fewer members, less money, less power. Right?
Not necessarily. Agency fees have been challenged at the state level over the past decade, and two states recently stopped allowing unions to collect them: Wisconsin and Michigan. The passage of those Right-to-Work laws may have caught state affiliates by surprise, unlike the widely anticipated Janus ruling. Even so, a close look at Wisconsin and Michigan may provide important clues about the future of teachers unions in a post-Janus world. ….
Marches on the boss come in different flavors. Some are spontaneous, as in Auriana Fabricatore’s story where a “mini-march” got great results. She was smart to encourage her co-workers to confront their manager immediately, while they were fired up with righteous anger—if they had set a date for next week, nervous jitters might have set in.
In other cases you’ll want to plan ahead, to get more people involved and maximize impact. Your action should be well planned but quick, before management finds out or members lose interest.
The tone of the confrontation can vary too, depending on your workplace culture, how strongly your co-workers feel about the issue, and how they feel about the boss. You may want a lighter touch—making your point respectfully, attempting a sit-down meeting, or delivering documents for the boss to review. Or your group may be ready for a more aggressive tone—showing anger, blocking the exits so the boss can’t run away, and timing the march to disrupt operations.
How We Marched on Our Boss
Source: Auriana Fabricatore, Labor Notes, June 7, 2018
Source: PayScale, Inc., June 2018
From the press release:
Today, PayScale, Inc., the world’s leading provider of precise, on-demand compensation data and software, released new research showing which employees are asking for pay raises and which employees are receiving them. This study is designed to educate both employees and employers about biases which may impact pay decisions in an effort to achieve equitable pay raises regardless of race or gender. One of the key findings from the “Raise Anatomy” report is that white men are far more likely to actually get a raise when they ask for it than a person of color. ….
Key findings from the report:
• The majority of employees (70 percent) who asked for a raise received at least some pay increase.
• Of those who asked for a raise, 39 percent of employees got the amount they requested, while 31 percent received a smaller raise than requested.
• People of color were significantly less likely than white men to have received a raise when they asked for one. Women of color were 19 percent less likely to have received a raise than a white man and men of color were 25 percent less likely. (Note: No single gender or racial/ethnic group was more likely to have asked for a raise than any other group.)
• The most common justification for denying a raise was budgetary constraints (49 percent). Only 22 percent of employees who heard this rationale actually believed it.
• One third of workers report that no rationale was provided when they were denied a raise.
• When workers don’t believe the rationale, or aren’t provided one, they reported lower rates of satisfaction with their employer and reported being more likely to quit.
• Of those who said that they did not ask for a raise, 30 percent reported their reason for not asking was they received a raise before they felt the need to ask their manager.
• Employees who are most satisfied with their work and their employers are those who agreed with the statement: “I’ve always been happy with my salary.” ….
How to boost your odds of getting a raise: Ask for one, and be a white man
Source: Rachel Siegel, Washington Post, June 6, 2018