The Wage and Job Impacts of Hospitals on Local Labor Markets

Source: Anne M. Mandich, Jeffrey H. Dorfman, Economic Development Quarterly, Vol 31, Issue 2, 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
This study examines the impact of hospitals on local labor markets in rural and urban counties. We measure the ability of hospitals, particularly in rural communities, to attract nonhealth-related employment and provide higher wage jobs to residents based on their education level. Results find hospital employees with an associate’s degree can expect a 21.4% wage premium, when compared with alternative opportunities, and those with a bachelor’s degree can earn 12.2% more working in a hospital. Hospitals are shown to be positively related to overall employment as well as exhibit positive employment spillover. For rural counties, a short-term general hospital is associated with 559 jobs in the county, 60 of which are hospital based and 499 are non–health care related. With the positive benefits on wages and non–health care job growth, hospitals have measurable positive labor market outcomes above their primary objective of providing health care access, particularly in rural counties.

How the Ivy League Collaborates with Donald Trump

Source: Nelson Lichtenstein, Dissent blog, April 25, 2017

…. Nowhere has this rejection of Trump’ extremism been more steadfast than on the university campus, especially at those elite, historically liberal institutions populating the coasts. At the University of California, where I teach, President Janet Napolitano has made clear that UC will protect undocumented students; Harvard, Yale, and Stanford are among seventeen schools joining a lawsuit against the Trump administration effort to ban immigration from Muslim countries. And in a joint opinion piece published in the Boston Globe, law school deans from Harvard and Yale declared the president “an enemy of the law and the Constitution” for his Twitter attacks on the judiciary.

Unfortunately, top university officials at Columbia and Yale have chosen to crack this wall of resistance. They have found in Trump an ally in their longstanding efforts to resist graduate employees’ efforts to unionize. They are ready, in other words, to collaborate—a word I do not use lightly. From their presidents on down, university labor-relations officials are hoping that Trump and the people he will soon appoint to the National Labor Relations Board will weigh in on management’s side and against those who are exercising their democratic right to organize and bargain with the school…..

Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates by Race and Ethnicity – Fall 2010 Cohort

Source: Doug Shapiro, Afet Dundar, Faye Huie, Phoebe Khasiala Wakhungu, Xin Yuan, Angel Nathan, Youngsik Hwang, National Student Clearinghouse Research Center and Project on Academic Success, Indiana University, Signature 12 Supplement, 2017

From the summary:
This supplement to our Signature Report 12 provides six-year completion rates disaggregated by race and ethnicity for students who began postsecondary education in fall 2010.

Among the study’s findings:
• Among students who started in four-year public institutions, black students had the lowest six-year completion rate (45.9 percent). The completion rate of Hispanic students was almost 10 percentage points higher than that of black students (55.0 percent). Over two-thirds of white and Asian students completed a degree within the same period (67.2 percent and 71.7 percent, respectively). Nationally, 62.4 percent of students finished a degree or certificate within six years.
• Nationally, 54.8 percent of students who started in any type of college or university in Fall 2010 completed a degree or certificate within six years. When examined by race and ethnicity, Asian and white students had a much higher completion rate (63.2 percent and 62.0 percent, respectively) than Hispanic and black students (45.8 percent and 38.0 percent, respectively). These rates include students who graduated after a transfer. They also count both full time and part time students.
• Among students who started in four-year public institutions, black men had the lowest completion rate (40.0 percent) and the highest stop-out rate (41.1 percent). Asian women had the highest completion rate (75.7 percent) and the lowest stop-out rate (11.2 percent).
• The overall completion rate for students who started in two-year public institutions was higher for white and Asian students (45.1 percent and 43.8 percent, respectively) than Hispanic and black students (33 percent and 25.8 percent, respectively). Nationally, the rate was 39.2 percent, as the Research Center reported in December 2016.
• The completion rate at four-year institutions for students who started at a community college (with or without receiving an associate’s degree first) was dramatically different for students of different racial and ethnic groups. While almost one in four Asian students and one in five white students had completed this transfer pathway by the end of the six-year study period, just one in 10 Hispanic students and about one in 12 black students did.
• The completion gaps between racial groups tend to shrink as students grow older. Among traditional-age students, there was a 24-percentage point gap in the completion rates of black and white students (42.7 percent and 66.8 percent, respectively) and 17.5-percentage points gap between Hispanic and white students (49.3 percent and 66.8 percent, respectively). Among adult learners (those who started college at 25 or older), however, the gap was 12.3 percentage points (42.0 percent and 29.7 percent, respectively) between black and white students and just 9.1 percentage points between Hispanic and white students (42.0 percent and 32.9 percent, respectively).

Related:
Download Appendix B (xlsx)
Download Appendix C (xlsx)

Graduation Rates and Race
Source: Emily Tate, inside Higher Ed, April 26, 2017
On average, white and Asian students earn a college-level credential at a rate about 20 percentage points higher than Hispanic and black students do, a new report shows.

Healthy Marketplace Index

Source: Health Care Cost Institute, 2017

The Healthy Marketplace Index measures the economic performance of health care markets across the country. It gives local policymakers, employers, and providers a benchmark as they work to improve health care value and affordability.

Explore Local Prices Using the Map:
– See how health care prices for inpatient, outpatient, and physician services in your local market stack up against a national average
– Understand how local prices for inpatient, outpatient, and physician services have changed over time
– Compare prices in your market to prices in other communities across the country

Divergent Trends in US Maternity and Paternity Leave, 1994–2015

Source: Jay L. Zagorsky, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 107, No. 3, March 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Objectives. To determine the number and type of US workers taking maternity or paternity leave.

Methods. We created a publicly available ecological long-term series for measuring parental leave from 1994 to 2015 by using the Current Population Survey, which interviews about 60 000 randomly selected households monthly.

Results. The average month from 1994 to 2015 saw 273 000 women and 13 000 men on maternity or paternity leave. Maternity leave rates per 10 000 births showed no trend over 22 years (mean = 677.6). Paternity figures increased by a factor of 3, but started from a small base (14.7–54.6). We observed no national impact on maternity or paternity leave after implementation of state laws that provided paid leave. About half (51.1%) of employees on maternity or paternity leave during 2015 received paid time off. The typical woman on maternity leave was older, more likely married, more likely non-Hispanic White, and more educated than the typical woman who gave birth.

Conclusions. Although the US economy has expanded dramatically since 1994, this improvement does not appear to have translated into more women taking maternity leave.

A Path Out Of Poverty: Career Training + Quality Pre K

Source: Eric Westervelt, NPR, April 28, 2017

What makes a high-quality learning program effective not just for the child but the whole family? What else, besides a well-run pre-K, is essential to help families break out of intergenerational poverty? These are some of the key questions that an approach called “two-generation” programs are working to answer. There are many of these “two-gen” programs across the U.S. And while they differ in emphasis and detail, at their core they intentionally focus on ways to help both the child and parent. Usually this happens through targeted education and career training and other vital support such as health services, mentoring, and transportation. NPR Ed has been keeping an eye on one innovative two-gen program in Oklahoma. It’s called Career Advance and is run by the Community Action Project of Tulsa County (CAP Tulsa). I’ve reported on it here and here. It gives low-income mothers access to high-quality Head Start for their children, alongside free career training in nursing and other in-demand health care fields as well as life coaching and support.

Escaping Poverty Requires Almost 20 Years With Nearly Nothing Going Wrong

Source: Gillian B. White, The Atlantic, April 27, 2017

The MIT economist Peter Temin argues that economic inequality results in two distinct classes. And only one of them has any power. ….

…. Temin argues that, following decades of growing inequality, America is now left with what is more or less a two-class system: One small, predominantly white upper class that wields a disproportionate share of money, power, and political influence and a much larger, minority-heavy (but still mostly white) lower class that is all too frequently subject to the first group’s whims. Temin identifies two types of workers in what he calls “the dual economy.” The first are skilled, tech-savvy workers and managers with college degrees and high salaries who are concentrated heavily in fields such as finance, technology, and electronics—hence his labeling it the “FTE sector.” They make up about 20 percent of the roughly 320 million people who live in America. The other group is the low-skilled workers, which he simply calls the “low-wage sector.” ….

Another Round of Fend-for-Yourself Federalism

Source: FFIS, State Policy Reports, Volume 35, Issue 8, April 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
It began with the president’s “skinny” budget for fiscal year (FY) 2018, and it is continuing with chatter around tax reform. “It” is the notion that state and local governments are about to see an escalation of fend-for-yourself federalism.

Death on the Job: The Toll of Neglect – 2017

Source: AFL-CIO Safety and Health Department, 2017

A National And State-By-State Profile Of Worker Safety And Health In The United States

From the summary:

The High Toll of Job Injuries, Illnesses and Deaths
In 2015:
• 4,836 workers were killed on the job in the United States.
• The fatal injury rate—3.4 per 100,000 workers—remained the same as the rate in 2014.
• An estimated 50,000 to 60,000 workers died from occupational diseases.
• 150 workers died each day from hazardous working conditions.
• Nearly 3.7 million work-related injuries and illnesses were reported.
• Underreporting is widespread—the true toll is 7.4 million to 11.1 million injuries each year.

States with the highest fatality rates in 2015 were:
• North Dakota (12.5 per 100,000 workers)
• Wyoming (12.0 per 100,000 workers)
• Montana (7.5 per 100,000)
• Mississippi (6.8 per 100,000 workers)
• Arkansas (5.8 per 100,000 workers)
• Louisiana (5.8 per 100,000 workers)

Latino and immigrant workers continue to be at higher risk than other workers:
• The Latino fatality rate was 4.0 per 100,000 workers, 18% higher than the national average.
• Deaths among Latino workers increased significantly in 2015; 903 deaths, compared with 804 in 2014.
• Almost the entire increase in Latino deaths was among immigrant workers; 605 (67%) of Latino workers killed were immigrant workers.
• 943 immigrant workers were killed on the job—the highest since 2007.

Older workers are at high risk. In 2015:
• 35% of all fatalities occurred in workers ages 55 or older, with 1,681 deaths.
• Workers 65 or older have more than 2.5 times the risk of dying on the job as other workers, with a fatality rate of 9.4 per 100,000 workers.

Comparing the Compensation of Federal and Private-Sector Employees, 2011 to 2015

Source: Congressional Budget Office, Report no. 52637, April 25, 2017

From the summary:
During the 2011-2015 period, the difference between the wages, benefits, and total compensation of federal civilian employees and those of similar private-sector employees varied widely depending on the employees’ educational attainment.