Category Archives: Workplace Violence/Bullying

Uninvestigated fatal workplace injuries in the United States

Source: Bethany Boggess, Lisa Pompeii, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Early View, Version of Record online: September 7, 2020
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From the abstract:
Background:
Approximately 5000 people are killed by an injury at work every year, but the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) only investigates 25%–35% of these deaths. The aim of this study was to identify industry, geographic, and worker demographic disparities in the proportion of fatal workplace injuries that are investigated by OSHA.

Methods:
This cross‐sectional analysis drew from 2 years of public data (2014–2015) from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and investigation data from OSHA. Differences by worker age and sex, geographic region, industry, and State Plan‐ versus Federal Plan‐state were examined.

Results:
Nationally, OSHA investigated about one in four (27.5%) of the 9657 fatal workplace injuries that occurred. Higher odds of uninvestigated fatalities were observed for female workers compared to male workers (odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.89, 2.93), for workers over age 65 compared to those aged 18–24 (3.05; 2.44, 3.82), for worker deaths occurring in State Plan states compared to Federal Plan states (1.64; 1.49, 1.79), among other differences.

Conclusions:
Although some of the disparities could be explained by OSHA jurisdiction restrictions, other areas of potential reform were identified, such as investigating a greater number of workplace violence deaths and increasing focus in industries with a low proportion of investigations but a high number of fatalities, such as transportation and warehousing. Consideration should be given to adapt policies, expand OSHA jurisdiction, and to increase OSHA resources for conducting both fatality investigations and proactive investigations that can identify and abate hazards before a worker is injured.

Prevalence of type II workplace violence among home healthcare workers: A meta‐analysis

Source: Ha Do Byon, Mijung Lee, Min Choi, Knar Sagherian, Mary Crandall, Jane Lipscomb, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Early View, First published: February 12, 2020

(subscription required)

From the abstract:

Background: Home healthcare workers (HHWs) provide medical and nonmedical services to home‐bound patients. They are at great risk of experiencing violence perpetrated by patients (type II violence). Establishing the reliable prevalence of such violence and identifying vulnerable subgroups are essential in enhancing HHWs’ safety. We, therefore, conducted meta‐analyses to synthesize the evidence for prevalence and identify vulnerable subgroups.


Methods: Five electronic databases were searched for journal articles published between 1 January 2005 and 20 March 2019. A total of 21 studies were identified for this study. Meta‐analyses of prevalence were conducted to obtain pooled estimates. Meta‐regression was performed to compare the prevalence between professionals and paraprofessionals.

Results: Prevalence estimates for HHWs were 0.223 for 12 months and 0.302 for over the career for combined violence types, 0.102 and 0.171, respectively, for physical violence, and 0.364 and 0.418, respectively, for nonphysical violence. The prevalence of nonphysical violence was higher than that of physical violence for professionals in 12 months (0.515 vs 0.135) and over the career (0.498 vs 0.224) and for paraprofessionals in 12 months (0.248 vs 0.086) and over the career (0.349 vs 0.113). Professionals reported significantly higher nonphysical violence for 12‐month prevalence than paraprofessionals did (0.515 vs 0.248, P = .015).


Conclusion: A considerable percentage of HHWs experience type II violence with higher prevalence among professionals. Further studies need to explore factors that can explain the differences in the prevalence between professionals and paraprofessionals. The findings provide support for the need for greater recognition of the violence hazard in the home healthcare workplace.

Let’s Get To Work: Empowering Employees to Take Action on Domestic Violence

Source: Holly Rider-Milkovich and Elizabeth Bille, Ms., October 24, 2019

Americans spend more waking hours at work, on average, than we do anywhere else. The positive and negative aspects of our lives come to work with us, and our experiences at work impact our overall quality of life. During Domestic Violence Awareness Month, we’re reminded both of the devastating national impact of domestic violence on many individuals’ lives as well as the essential role that workplaces play in addressing this issue. ….

Together, we bring nearly a half century of experience in addressing domestic violence in the workplace and in our communities: Holly as an advocate for survivors of domestic violence on college campuses and in communities for over 20 years, and Elizabeth as an employment law attorney whose experience includes serving as General Counsel and Ethics Officer of SHRM and as a legal and policy advisor to the Vice Chair of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In our current roles at EVERFI, we spearhead efforts to address sexual and gender-based violence in the workplace.

From this vantage point of both experience and expertise, we have identified three critical questions you can ask your company to assess whether your organization is ready to support employees who are experiencing domestic violence. ….

Labor in Academic Libraries

Source: Emily Drabinski, Aliqae Geraci, and Roxanne Shirazi, Issue Editors, Library Trends, Volume 68, Number 2, Fall 2019

Articles Include:
Participatory and Ethical Strategic Planning: What Academic Libraries Can Learn from Critical Management Studies
Danya Leebaw

Abstract:
This paper introduces a subfield of management studies, “critical management studies” (CMS) in order to rethink mainstream management practices in academic libraries, with strategic planning as an illustrative example. Mainstream management models from the corporate sector prioritize efficiency, productivity, and numerical measures for assessing impact. Academic libraries have generally borrowed uncritically from this mainstream management praxis, but how well does this serve our needs, especially when it comes to the most complex issues we face? CMS draws on critical theory to interrogate the methods and goals of mainstream management, with an emphasis on denaturalizing “taken for granted” practices and prioritizing ethics and worker equity. After providing a brief overview of the history and adoption of mainstream management in academic libraries, this paper focuses on strategic planning as an illustrative exploration of CMS principles in an academic library context. Strategic planning is a common managerial practice that has been embraced by academic libraries and generally modeled after mainstream approaches. Yet, CMS scholars contend that traditional strategic planning reproduces workplace inequities and universalizes managerial interests. In this article, I employ ideas from CMS to rethink library strategic planning by opening participation, reframing problems, and embracing our ethical agency.

“Being in Time”: New Public Management, Academic Librarians, and the Temporal Labor of Pink-Collar Public Service Work
Karen P. Nicholson

Abstract:
Time is a site of power, one that enacts particular subjectivities and relationships. In the workplace, time enables and constrains performance, attitudes, and behaviors. In this qualitative research study, I examine the impact of the values and practices of new public management on academic librarians’ experiences of time when engaged in pink-collar public service (reference and information literacy) work. Data gathered during semi-structured interviews with twenty-four public service librarians in Canadian public research-intensive universities, members of the U15 Group, serve as a site of analysis for this study. Interview data were first analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke 2006) within a constructionist framework. Sharma’s (2014) theory of power-chronography—time as power—was then used as an analytical framework. Findings suggest that, in keeping with research on the temporal experiences of faculty, academic librarians’ temporal labor is structured and controlled by the logics and institutional arrangements of new public management. Moreover, like their faculty counterparts, academic librarians experience temporal intensification and acceleration. However, as marginal educators and members of a feminized profession, librarians also encounter “recalibration” (Sharma 2014), the need to modify the tempo of their own labor to be “in time” with the dominant temporalities of faculty and students.

“The Power of Knowledge, Objectified”: Immaterial Labor, Cognitive Capitalism, and Academic Librarianship
Sam Popowich

Abstract:
This article analyzes current trends in academic librarianship from the perspective of Italian autonomist Marxism. With the rise of new technologies and the advent of a period variously called the “Fourth Industrial Revolution,” “Industry 4.0,” and “The Second Machine Age,” academic librarianship is undergoing various changes in work-flow, technology, and service provision. The body of thought that developed out of the Italian Marxist tradition provides ways of thinking through and understanding these changes by placing them within a larger dynamic of capitalist development and the restructuring of labor processes. After looking at changes to academic librarianship from the perspective of immaterial labor and cognitive capitalism, the paper offers ways that academic librarianship can think about the possibility of resistance to these changes.

Low Morale in Ethnic and Racial Minority Academic Librarians: An Experiential Study
Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, Ione T. Damasco

Abstract:
Library and information science (LIS) literature about workplace bullying and burnout in academic libraries continues to grow, and a recent study has revealed the experience of low morale in the same environment. Concomitantly, research focusing on continuing recruitment, promotion, advancement, and retention problems for ethnic and minority librarians; links between North American library values and workplace abuse; and historiographies on the historic marginalization of minority librarians has also appeared in LIS literature. Citing aforementioned developments in LIS literature and the racially homogenous participant make-up of Kendrick’s 2017 study of low morale in academic libraries, this follow-up qualitative study focuses on racial and ethnic minority academic librarians to understand this group’s experience of low morale. Emerging data validate the development, trajectory, and health-related consequences of low morale; center the load of additional impact factors; and highlight the impact of low morale on recruitment and retention efforts of racial and ethnic minority librarians employed in North American colleges and universities.

Reconsidering Technical Labor in Information Institutions: The Case of Analog Video Digitization
Zack Lischer-Katz

Abstract:
Technical labor is still typically made invisible in the functioning of academic libraries and other information institutions even as they begin to disseminate technical and craft knowledge through makerspaces and other sites of library innovation. This paper seeks to recover one type of technical labor, digitization, as information work that embodies mental and manual activities and is both materially and intellectually productive. This paper draws on findings from an empirical study conducted by the author from 2015–2017 that used qualitative-interpretive methods to study the discursive and material practices of professional media preservationists as they worked to digitize analog video recordings in small-scale, high-quality (“artisanal”) digitization projects. One key finding of this research is that in order to produce “legitimate” digital copies within their institutional contexts, media preservationists must coordinate their physical and mental activities to develop understanding of the invisible electrical signals that carry the encoded video information, blending objective and subjective modalities of knowledge. These findings have implications for understanding how the invisible labor of digitization has significant mental as well as manual dimensions, contributing to ongoing debates in information studies and the digital humanities on the relationship between “doing” and “signifying” in terms of knowledge work.

Empty Presence: Library Labor, Prestige, and the MLS
Maura Seale, Rafia Mirza

Abstract:
In this essay, we explore the relationship between the MLS and professionalization within librarianship broadly and then look more specifically at academic librarianship, which increasingly turns to other means of professionalization, such as more prestigious forms of credentialing, due to its precarious existence within higher education. The emphasis on professionalization through credentialing invisibilizes library labor, which is already feminized and devalued. Academic librarianship instead seeks to gain prestige and power by associating itself with whiteness and masculinity, rendering its specialized work and knowledge domain unimportant. Removing the MLS requirement from professional library positions will not address these broader issues, and as hiring trends demonstrate, might already be a moot point. Prestige, professionalization, and credentialing within academic librarianship have been debated since the inception of the profession; the interaction of these with gender ideologies and a predominantly female workforce has received attention since the 1970s. Librarianship’s constant state of crisis and search for external markers of prestige can only exist comfortably outside of historical memory and critical analysis, however. This essay problematizes individual solutions such as credentialing that paper over systemic sociopolitical issues; specific solutions are beyond the scope of this paper, but we do suggest that solutions need to account for broader context, such as current and historical gender ideologies.

Scope of Work, Roles, and Responsibilities for Academic Librarians: Tenure-Track vs. Non-Tenure-Track Professionals
Eric Hartnett, Wendi Arant-Kaspar, Wyoma vanDuinkerken

Abstract:
The purpose of this multi-institutional study is to determine how many academic libraries have chosen to institute a two-track system for their librarians: tenure-track faculty and non-tenure-track faculty. It will approach this inquiry in a two-fold manner, first with a survey questionnaire sent to library deans or directors of research libraries and then with the collection and analysis of formal policy documents from these libraries defining the expectations and work of librarians on the two tracks. This study will highlight how these tracks are distinctive in terms of the scope of work, workload, and other related factors and the implications for the development of the profession. Results of this study will add to recent research and perceptions of librarianship and higher education by providing an understanding of how these factors influence the organizational culture of academic libraries.

Librarians in the Academic Ecosystem
Rachel Applegate

Abstract:
Much of what academic librarians do does not look like what “faculty” do—classic, stereotypical, tenure-track, classroom faculty. Instead, it looks like support work, or administration, or is invisible: all things that are distinctly not valued by classic faculty. Much of the research in library literature, the talk among academic librarians themselves, seems to center on benefits and privileges, and the distinctions are not based on faculty vs. librarian status but on other factors; for example, salaries for librarians, as for economists, English faculty and nursing instructors are mostly set by discipline and market conditions. It will be more productive for librarians to take a political and strategic perspective: with one overarching realization, and one focused goal. The realization is that the “faculty” role is itself diverse: it is not classic nor stereotyped nor even “classroom” in many cases. The variation within the group “faculty” is in many respects more significant than the variation between the groups “faculty” and “librarians.” The focused goal is to seek the status that will place librarians in the decisions of which they should be part.

From Slavery to College Loans
kynita stringer-stanback

Abstract:
My story begins back in 1793 when November Caldwell was “gifted” to Helen Hogg Hooper (whose father-in-law, William Hooper, signed the Declaration of Independence), the wife of the first president of UNC–Chapel Hill, Joseph Caldwell. November Caldwell is my great-great-great-grandfather. Currently, I owe over six figures in student-loan debt to the very institution that enslaved my ancestors. We are at a particular place in the political history of our nation. White supremacy is morally corrupt. It requires that we deny the humanity of human beings for one reason or another. It is hard to stand up against white supremacy because folks who do are often ostracized from their families and communities. We have all been socialized to believe in white supremacy—it was one of our nation’s founding principles. In this essay I hope to break open a dialogue about the white supremacist hegemony institutionalized within our neoliberal university system. Connecting the past atrocities of slavery with actual educational experiences of the descendants of those who served the proslavery institutions has not been widely publicized or talked about. We must interrogate our history or we will be doomed to continue to repeat the horrific inhumane atrocities.

Lessons from the Field: Organizing a Faculty Union in the Era of Janus
Kelly McElroy

Abstract:
On June 27, 2018, the Oregon Employment Relations Board certified United Academics of Oregon State University (UAOSU) as the sole bargaining unit to represent teaching and research faculty of our university. On the same day, the United States Supreme Court released its decision in Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), Council 31. In this personal narrative, I will describe our organizing campaign, considering our success in the light of Janus. I conclude with reflections on how what I have learned from organizing continues to shape my work as an academic librarian.

Democratizing the Union at UC Berkeley: Lecturers and Librarians in Solidarity
Margaret Phillips, David Eifler, Tiffany Linton Page

Abstract:
This article explores how librarians and lecturers at the University of California, Berkeley, worked together to make their union more participatory in a context of increasing corporatization in public higher education. Written as a case study, we examine this ongoing revitalization process initiated by lecturers in the summer of 2016 and how it transformed librarian activism and bargaining strategy. For context, we also examine the history and unique nature of the University Council–American Federation of Teachers, the union representing both librarians and lecturers. We discuss why librarians had become ambivalent about their union and how an active group of librarians changed the culture in the organization and worked to bring members’ voices into the 2018/2019 librarian contract negotiations. Engaging membership and encouraging participation required a group of committed organizers, with the support of paid union staff, to actively seek feedback from members, to communicate regularly, and to organize solidarity events. Throughout this process, the local worked to build coalitions with other campus unions, and members became increasingly aware of the important role unions play in protecting and advancing the mission of a public university and as a site for social justice activism.

Aggression Detectors: The Unproven, Invasive Surveillance Technology Schools Are Using to Monitor Students

Source: Jack Gillum and Jeff Kao, ProPublica and Wired June 25, 2019

…. The students were helping ProPublica test an aggression detector that’s used in hundreds of schools, health care facilities, banks, stores and prisons worldwide, including more than 100 in the U.S. Sound Intelligence, the Dutch company that makes the software for the device, plans to open an office this year in Chicago, where its chief executive will be based.

California-based Louroe Electronics, which has loaded the software on its microphones since 2015, advertises the devices in school safety magazines and at law enforcement conventions, and it said it has between 100 and 1,000 customers for them. Louroe’s marketing materials say the detection software enables security officers to “engage antagonistic individuals immediately, resolving the conflict before it turns into physical violence.” ….

Sex and Gender Role Differences in Occupational Exposures and Work Outcomes Among Registered Nurses in Correctional Settings

Source: Mazen El Ghaziri, Alicia G Dugan, Yuan Zhang, Rebecca Gore, Mary Ellen Castro, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, Advance Articles, March 30, 2019

From the abstract:
Background and context:
The correctional environment exposes registered nurses to unique occupational health hazards including, but not limited to, an increased risk for workplace violence. Gender role expectations regarding femininity and masculinity may influence occupational exposures and outcomes differently. Risk comparisons between male and female registered nurses working in correctional settings, have been minimally examined. With the proportion of male registered nurses working in corrections higher than that of nurses working in other healthcare sectors, and with the increasing number of males entering the nursing workforce in general, it is important to characterize and understand occupational exposures and outcomes of male and female registered nurses, especially those working in correctional settings.

Purpose/objectives:
This paper aims to describe and compare sex and gender role differences in occupational exposures and work outcomes among correctional registered nurses.

Methods:
A cross-sectional web-based survey using Qualtrics was administered to registered nurses working in a northeastern correctional healthcare system between June and October 2016. The survey was composed of 71 items from the CPH-NEW Healthy Workplace All Employee Survey, Assessing Risk of Exposure to Blood and Airborne Pathogens and General Health Survey, Bem Sex Role Inventory-Short Form (BSRI-SF), and the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised.

Results:
Of 95 registered nurse participants, 75% were female with the highest percentage identified as belonging to the feminine group (37%), while the highest percentage of male participants were identified as belonging to the androgynous group (33%). Females worked primarily on the first shift, while males tended to work the second and third shifts (P < 0.05). Over one third of all participants (37%) reported having experienced a sharps-related injury and having been exposed to blood-borne pathogens and body fluids within the previous 2–5 years. The majority of the participants (>95%) reported being at risk for workplace violence and having been victims of workplace violence perpetrated by an inmate. Significant gender differences (P < 0.0001) were noted in the bullying exposure with androgynous nurses having higher occasional bullying. There was a marginal difference in burnout for females (M = 6.8, SD = 2.1) and males (M = 5.8, SD = 1.9, P = 0.05). Implications: Effective interventions are needed to address the sex and gender role-based differences in bullying exposure and burnout in order to promote the overall health and well-being of correctional registered nurses.

New Jersey Home Health Care Aides Survey Results

Source: Marilyn Lou Ridenour, Scott Hendricks, Daniel Hartley, James D. Blando, Home Health Care Management & Practice, OnlineFirst, Published February 27, 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
The objective of the study was to report on what violence-based training home health care aides received, their participation in health promotion classes, and home health care aides’ experience with workplace violence. In 2013, a mail survey was completed by 513 home health care aides in the state of New Jersey. Ninety-four percent of the respondents were female. Respondents whose agency was part of a hospital were more likely to receive violence-based safety training than respondents whose agency was not part of a hospital (p = .0313). When the perpetrator of violence was a patient or family member, the respondents experienced verbal abuse the most (26%), then physical assault (16%) and exposure to bodily fluids (13%). Home health care aides whose agency was part of a hospital were more likely to receive violence-based safety training. Training is an important component of a workplace violence prevention program.

Stalking In The Workplace

Source: Maureen Minehan, Employment Alert, Volume 36 Issue 6, March 18, 2019
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An employee reports that a co-worker is making her uncomfortable. Despite repeatedly telling him she is not interested in any type of relationship with him, he regularly leaves presents on her desk. When you ask him about his behavior, he says they are just small things and he gives them to her only because he is sure they are something she will like. If you find yourself in a similar situation, your alarm bells should go off. Giving of unwanted presents is a characteristic often found in stalking situations….

Other Duties as Assigned: Front-line librarians on the constant pressure to do more

Source: Anne Ford, American Libraries, January 2, 2019

Maybe it existed only in our collective imagination—the era when librarians focused solely on providing access to written information, and when their greatest on-the-job challenge consisted of keeping the stacks in order. Whether that halcyon time ever actually took place, it’s definitely not here now. Social worker, EMT, therapist, legal consultant, even bodily defender: These are the roles that many (perhaps most?) librarians feel they’re being asked to assume.

American Libraries asked seven librarians—public, academic, and school; urban and rural—their thoughts about the many directions in which their profession finds itself pulled….