Category Archives: Workplace Violence/Bullying

Violence against emergency medical services personnel: A systematic review of the literature

Source: Brian J. Maguire, Peter O’Meara, Barbara. O’Neill, and Richard Brightwell, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Early View, November 27, 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Background
Violence against emergency medical services (EMS) personnel is a growing concern. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize the current literature on violence against EMS personnel.

Methods
We examined literature from 2000 to 2016. Eligibility criteria included English-language, peer-reviewed studies of EMS personnel that described violence or assaults. Sixteen searches identified 2655 studies; 25 studies from nine countries met the inclusion criteria.

Results
The evidence from this review demonstrates that violence is a common risk for EMS personnel. We identified three critical topic areas: changes in risk over time, economic impact of violence and, outcomes of risk-reduction interventions. There is a lack of peer reviewed research of interventions, with the result that current intervention programs have no reliable evidence base.

Conclusions
EMS leaders and personnel should work together with researchers to design, implement, evaluate and publish intervention studies designed to mitigate risks of violence to EMS personnel.

Precarious schedules linked with workplace aggression in a high-risk occupation

Source: David A. Hurtado, Lisset M. Dumet, Samuel A. Greenspan, Miguel Marino and Kimberly Bernard, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Early View, November 21, 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Introduction
Night work and prolonged work hours increase the risk for workplace aggression, however, the risk related to precarious schedules remains unknown.

Methods
Cross-sectional study among Parole Probation Officers (PPOs) (n = 35). A precarious schedules index was created including the following indicators (a) experiencing one or more unexpected shifts during the last 4 weeks; (b) having minimal control over work hours; and (c) shifts notifications of less than a week. Generalized Poisson Regressions estimated the association between precarious schedules and self-reported client-based aggressive incidents (verbal, threating, property, or physical) during the last 12 months.

Results
Workplace aggression was highly prevalent (94.3%). PPOs who experienced precarious schedules (74.3% prevalence) had an adjusted rate of workplace aggression 1.55 times greater than PPOs without precarious schedules (IRR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.25, 1.97, P < 0.001). Conclusions Precarious schedules were associated with workplace aggression. Further research ought to examine whether improving schedule predictability may reduce client-based aggression.

Workplace violence injury in 106 US hospitals participating in the Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN), 2012-2015

Source: Matthew R. Groenewold, Raymond F.R. Sarmiento, Kelly Vanoli, William Raudabaugh, Susan Nowlin and Ahmed Gomaa, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, OnlineFirst, November 20, 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Background
Workplace violence is a substantial occupational hazard for healthcare workers in the United States.

Methods
We analyzed workplace violence injury surveillance data submitted by hospitals participating in the Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) from 2012 to 2015.

Results
Data were frequently missing for several important variables. Nursing assistants (14.89, 95%CI 10.12-21.91) and nurses (8.05, 95%CI 6.14-10.55) had the highest crude workplace violence injury rates per 1000 full-time equivalent (FTE) workers. Nursing assistants’ (IRR 2.82, 95%CI 2.36-3.36) and nurses’ (IRR 1.70, 95%CI 1.45-1.99) adjusted workplace violence injury rates were significantly higher than those of non-patient care personnel. On average, the overall rate of workplace violence injury among OHSN-participating hospitals increased by 23% annually during the study period.

Conclusion
Improved data collection is needed for OHSN to realize its full potential. Workplace violence is a serious, increasingly common problem in OHSN-participating hospitals. Nursing assistants and nurses have the highest injury risk.

The Short-Lived Benefits Of Abusive Supervisory Behavior For Actors: An Investigation Of Recovery And Work Engagement

Source: Xin Qin, Mingpeng Huang, Russell Johnson, Qiongjing Hu and Dong Ju, Academy of Management Journal, Published online before print September 11, 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Although empirical evidence has accumulated showing that abusive supervision has devastating effects on subordinates’ work attitudes and outcomes, knowledge about how such behavior impacts supervisors who exhibit it is limited. Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we develop and test a model that specifies how and when engaging in abusive supervisory behavior has immediate benefits for supervisors. Via two experiments and a multi-wave diary study across 10 consecutive workdays, we found that engaging in abusive supervisory behavior was associated with improved recovery level. Moreover, abusive supervisory behavior had a positive indirect effect on work engagement through recovery level. Interestingly, supplemental analyses suggested that these beneficial effects were short-lived because, over longer periods of time (i.e., one week and beyond), abusive supervisory behavior were negatively related to supervisors’ recovery level and engagement. The strength of these short-lived beneficial effects was also bound by personal and contextual factors. Empathic concern–a personal factor–and job demands–a contextual factor–moderated the observed effects. Specifically, supervisors with high empathic concern or low job demands experienced fewer benefits after engaging in abusive supervisory behavior. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, and propose future research directions.

Related:
Being a jerk at work doesn’t pay off for long
Source: Andy Henion, Futurity, September 28th, 2017

Deadly Picket-Lines in US Labour History

Source: Paul F. Lipold and Larry W. Isaac, International Union Rights, Vol. 24 No. 2, 2017
(subscription required)

Dead men tell no tales; that is, until the living give them voice. From 1870 to 1970, a veritable victims’ chorus of no fewer than 1160 fatalities was amassed during labour dispute confrontations within the United States of America. Each was simultaneously an expression of and catalyst within the dialectical evolution of US labour-management relations. …. Between 1877 to 1947, the US labour movement experienced the most violent and bloody era of and Western industrialized nation: strikers, organisers, and their sympathizers comprised nearly two-thirds of the classifiable victims. ….

Prevention Is Key (Er…Required): Will Your State Soon Mandate Workplace Violence Prevention Programs?

Source: Sean Kingston, JDSupra, August 4, 2017

It is no secret to hospital and other healthcare employees that their workplace is no longer a guaranteed safe zone. In fact, recent statistics released by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) indicate that workplace violence is four times more prevalent in the healthcare and social services industries than in other private industries. Violence may come from many sources, including patients or those accompanying them, employees and those who have relationships with employees, and third parties with no business at the facility.

Responding to an outcry from nurses’ unions and patients’ rights groups, and following the lead of seven other states, the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration (CalOSHA) recently enacted a new law (effective April 1, 2017) creating a standard for workplace violence prevention in the healthcare industry. While the breadth of coverage and depth of action required of employers in California now exceeds what can be found in any other state, it could be a sign of things to come for other states.

Because the national tide is turning to legislation that mandates workplace violence prevention programs, particularly in the healthcare context, all healthcare employers would be wise to emulate the practices required by CalOSHA. The federal OSHA and numerous state counterparts are working to assemble similar legislation. …

Computer-based training (CBT) intervention reduces workplace violence and harassment for homecare workers

Source: Nancy Glass, Ginger C. Hanson, W. Kent Anger, Naima Laharnar, Jacquelyn C. Campbell, Marc Weinstein and Nancy Perrin, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol 60 Issue 7, July 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Background: The study examines the effectiveness of a workplace violence and harassment prevention and response program with female homecare workers in a consumer driven model of care.

Methods: Homecare workers were randomized to either; computer based training (CBT only) or computer-based training with homecare worker peer facilitation (CBT + peer). Participants completed measures on confidence, incidents of violence, and harassment, health and work outcomes at baseline, 3, 6 months post-baseline.

Results: Homecare workers reported improved confidence to prevent and respond to workplace violence and harassment and a reduction in incidents of workplace violence and harassment in both groups at 6-month follow-up. A decrease in negative health and work outcomes associated with violence and harassment were not reported in the groups.

Conclusion: CBT alone or with trained peer facilitation with homecare workers can increase confidence and reduce incidents of workplace violence and harassment in a consumer-driven model of care.

Death on the Job: The Toll of Neglect – 2017

Source: AFL-CIO Safety and Health Department, 2017

A National And State-By-State Profile Of Worker Safety And Health In The United States

From the summary:

The High Toll of Job Injuries, Illnesses and Deaths
In 2015:
• 4,836 workers were killed on the job in the United States.
• The fatal injury rate—3.4 per 100,000 workers—remained the same as the rate in 2014.
• An estimated 50,000 to 60,000 workers died from occupational diseases.
• 150 workers died each day from hazardous working conditions.
• Nearly 3.7 million work-related injuries and illnesses were reported.
• Underreporting is widespread—the true toll is 7.4 million to 11.1 million injuries each year.

States with the highest fatality rates in 2015 were:
• North Dakota (12.5 per 100,000 workers)
• Wyoming (12.0 per 100,000 workers)
• Montana (7.5 per 100,000)
• Mississippi (6.8 per 100,000 workers)
• Arkansas (5.8 per 100,000 workers)
• Louisiana (5.8 per 100,000 workers)

Latino and immigrant workers continue to be at higher risk than other workers:
• The Latino fatality rate was 4.0 per 100,000 workers, 18% higher than the national average.
• Deaths among Latino workers increased significantly in 2015; 903 deaths, compared with 804 in 2014.
• Almost the entire increase in Latino deaths was among immigrant workers; 605 (67%) of Latino workers killed were immigrant workers.
• 943 immigrant workers were killed on the job—the highest since 2007.

Older workers are at high risk. In 2015:
• 35% of all fatalities occurred in workers ages 55 or older, with 1,681 deaths.
• Workers 65 or older have more than 2.5 times the risk of dying on the job as other workers, with a fatality rate of 9.4 per 100,000 workers.

Quelling a storm of violence in healthcare settings

Source: Elizabeth Whitman, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 47 no. 11, March 13, 2017

Violence in healthcare settings has risen steadily in recent years. That has taken a growing financial and human toll on the nation’s 15 million healthcare workers and on its hospitals and long-term care centers, and has prompted executives, providers and policymakers to take action in myriad ways.