Category Archives: Working Women

Women in Congress 1917-2019: Service Dates and Committee Assignments by Member, and Lists by State and Congress

Source: Jennifer E. Manning, Ida A. Brudnick, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report, RL30261, Updated April 9, 2019

In total 365 women have been elected or appointed to Congress, 247 Democrats and 118 Republicans. These figures include six nonvoting Delegates, one each from Guam, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and American Samoa, and two from the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as one Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico. Of these 365 women, there have been
– 309 (211 Democrats, 98 Republicans) women elected only to the House of Representatives;
– 40 (25 Democrats, 15 Republicans) women elected or appointed only to the Senate; and
– 16 (11 Democrats, 5 Republicans) women who have served in both houses.

A record 131 women currently serve in the 116th Congress. Of these 131 women, there are
– 25 in the Senate (17 Democrats and 8 Republicans);
– 102 Representatives in the House (89 Democrats and 13 Republicans); and
– 4 women in the House (2 Democrats and 2 Republicans) who serve as Delegates or Resident Commissioner, representing the District of Columbia, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.

This report includes brief biographical information, committee assignments, dates of service, district information, and listings by Congress and state, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 365 women who have been elected or appointed to Congress. It will be updated when there are relevant changes in the makeup of Congress

Supermajority Founder Ai-jen Poo Says the Massive New Activist Network Wants to Connect Women Organizers

Source: Lucy Diavolo, Teen Vogue, May 1, 2019

A massive network of women activists across the country — that’s the vision of the new activist org Supermajority and its leadership, which is a dream team of organizers. Former Planned Parenthood president Cecile Richards, Black Lives Matter Global Network co-founder Alicia Garza, and National Domestic Workers Alliance (NDWA) director Ai-Jen Poo are just three of the women helming the group named for the fact that women are a majority of the country’s electorate.

“Women are marching, running for office, donating to, and advocating for causes and campaigns, and voting in record numbers. We can be the most powerful force in America — if we do the work together,” the group, which launched April 29, says on its website. “We’re building a Supermajority of women [and everyone who shares our values!] who are organizing for gender equity.”

The leadership behind the group is a who’s who of powerful women. Aside from Poo, Garza, and Richards, there’s Deirdre Schifeling of Planned Parenthood’s Action Fund; Jess Morales Rocketto of the NDWA, Care in Action, and Families Belong Together; and NYU professor Katherine Grainger of Civitas Public Affairs Group.

Not In Labor: An Interview With Jenny Brown

Source: Liza Featherstone, Jacobin, April 23, 2019

In 2017, the birth rate in the United States reached an all-time low. In her new book Birth Strike: The Hidden Fight Over Women’s Work (PM Press), activist and author Jenny Brown argues that declining birth rates represent a work slowdown, or strike, in the face of the poor conditions for those who do the labor of bearing and raising children.

Like many of the classic texts of the Second Wave feminist movement, Brown’s book is her own, yet also a collective, intellectual endeavor, growing out of her organizing work with Redstockings and National Women’s Liberation, including those groups’ discussions and consciousness raising sessions….

Sex and Gender Role Differences in Occupational Exposures and Work Outcomes Among Registered Nurses in Correctional Settings

Source: Mazen El Ghaziri, Alicia G Dugan, Yuan Zhang, Rebecca Gore, Mary Ellen Castro, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, Advance Articles, March 30, 2019

From the abstract:
Background and context:
The correctional environment exposes registered nurses to unique occupational health hazards including, but not limited to, an increased risk for workplace violence. Gender role expectations regarding femininity and masculinity may influence occupational exposures and outcomes differently. Risk comparisons between male and female registered nurses working in correctional settings, have been minimally examined. With the proportion of male registered nurses working in corrections higher than that of nurses working in other healthcare sectors, and with the increasing number of males entering the nursing workforce in general, it is important to characterize and understand occupational exposures and outcomes of male and female registered nurses, especially those working in correctional settings.

Purpose/objectives:
This paper aims to describe and compare sex and gender role differences in occupational exposures and work outcomes among correctional registered nurses.

Methods:
A cross-sectional web-based survey using Qualtrics was administered to registered nurses working in a northeastern correctional healthcare system between June and October 2016. The survey was composed of 71 items from the CPH-NEW Healthy Workplace All Employee Survey, Assessing Risk of Exposure to Blood and Airborne Pathogens and General Health Survey, Bem Sex Role Inventory-Short Form (BSRI-SF), and the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised.

Results:
Of 95 registered nurse participants, 75% were female with the highest percentage identified as belonging to the feminine group (37%), while the highest percentage of male participants were identified as belonging to the androgynous group (33%). Females worked primarily on the first shift, while males tended to work the second and third shifts (P < 0.05). Over one third of all participants (37%) reported having experienced a sharps-related injury and having been exposed to blood-borne pathogens and body fluids within the previous 2–5 years. The majority of the participants (>95%) reported being at risk for workplace violence and having been victims of workplace violence perpetrated by an inmate. Significant gender differences (P < 0.0001) were noted in the bullying exposure with androgynous nurses having higher occasional bullying. There was a marginal difference in burnout for females (M = 6.8, SD = 2.1) and males (M = 5.8, SD = 1.9, P = 0.05). Implications: Effective interventions are needed to address the sex and gender role-based differences in bullying exposure and burnout in order to promote the overall health and well-being of correctional registered nurses.

Women, Automation, and the Future of Work

Source: Ariane Hegewisch, Chandra Childers, Heidi Hartmann, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, IWPR #C47, March 13, 2019

From the executive summary:
From driverless cars to factories operated by robots and stores with self-checkout systems, automation and technology are changing the way we perceive and do work. But how do all these technological changes affect men and women differently?

According to Women, Automation, and the Future of Work, an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) report, technological change will affect men and women differently in a number of ways. The first study of its kind in the United States, this report estimates the risk of automation across occupations by gender and presents a comprehensive picture of what we know—and what we don’t—about how the future of work will affect women workers.

This study finds that discussions about technological change and the future of work must include gender as part of the analysis. That’s because the jobs most commonly held by women—cashiers,secretaries, and bookkeeping clerks, for example—face some of the highest risks of becoming automated in the future. And while men are not immune to the risks of technological change, women are even more likely to work in jobs where technology and automation threaten to displace them.

This report examines not only the impact of these technological shifts on the quantity of jobs but also the quality of jobs in the future. Drawing on occupational projections from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and recent research on the potential for automation across occupations, IWPR researchers developed a Future of Work Database to analyze the potential impact of technological changes on:

■ the number of jobs
■ the nature of work and how it’s done
■ the quality of work
■ the future of work and family

By increasing our understanding of the potential impact of these technological changes, we can create more gender-aware policies that will increase equality and the quality of jobs in the coming decades.

#MeToo Has ‘Significant Impact’ on Harassment Filings

Source: Kathy Gurchiek, SHRM, April 12, 2019

Number of sexual harassment charges filed with the EEOC jumps 13.6%

Retaliation was again the type of discrimination charge most frequently filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in fiscal year 2018, followed by allegations of sex, disability and race discrimination, the agency reported.

Among the 76,418 total workplace discrimination charges the agency received the last fiscal year, 39,469 were for retaliation, accounting for nearly 52 percent of all charges filed. Discrimination based on sex was the second most frequently filed charge, with 24,655 charges received…..

Exposed: Discrimination Against Breastfeeding Workers

Source: Liz Morris – Center for WorkLife Law, Jessica Lee and Joan Williams – University of California Hastings College of the Law, January 1, 2019

From the abstract:
Due to the medical consensus that breastfeeding reduces major health risks to both babies and mothers, the United States is waging an ongoing struggle to improve breastfeeding duration rates. Yet legal protections for breastfeeding parents in the workplace have not kept pace with the U.S.’s public health goals. Based on a review of workplace breastfeeding legal cases from the last decade, an analysis of all federal and state workplace laws protecting breastfeeding workers including coverage statistics, and interviews with women who faced workplace discrimination, this report documents the anemic legal landscape of breastfeeding rights at work. Discrimination against breastfeeding workers often forces them to stop breastfeeding or lose their jobs, at a devastating cost to their families. Almost three-fourths of breastfeeding discrimination cases studied involved economic loss, and nearly two-thirds ended in job loss. The legal tools to prevent and respond to such discrimination are lacking in both efficacy and scope. The report offers policy solutions to fix the gaps in our patchwork of laws to protect breastfeeding workers.

The Child Care Crisis Is Keeping Women Out of the Workforce

Source: Leila Schochet, Center for American Progress, March 28, 2019

More mothers would increase their earnings and seek new job opportunities if they had greater access to reliable and affordable child care. ….

….This report highlights the relationship between child care and maternal employment and underscores how improving child care access has the potential to boost employment and earnings for working mothers. Based on new analysis of the 2016 Early Childhood Program Participation Survey (ECPP), it demonstrates how families are having difficulty finding child care under the current system and how lack of access to child care may be keeping mothers out of the workforce. The report then presents results from a national poll conducted by the Center for American Progress and GBA Strategies, which asked parents what career decisions they would make if child care were more readily available and affordable. Finally, the report outlines federal policy solutions that are crucial to supporting mothers in the workforce. ….

#MeToo – A Brief Review

Source: Amy J. Traub and Amanda Van Hoose Garofalo, Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, Spring 2019
(subscription required)

It is clear that the #MeToo movement has spurred many actions from all sides, but we likely will not know its full impact for years to come. The authors of this article review the inception of the #MeToo movement and how things have changed since the movement began.

It has been more than a year since the allegations against Harvey Weinstein broke in The New York Times, which unleashed one of the largest social media-driven movements seen to date: #MeToo. #MeToo did not confine itself to social media; instead, the individuals driving this movement screamed from their social media platforms until real change occurred – not just small changes made to appease some current fad, but truly dramatic changes that have shifted the way employers and the law handle sexual harassment claims….

Related:

California Employers Face Raft of New #MeToo Laws
Source: Benjamin M. Ebbink, Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, Spring 2019
(subscription required)

The author of this article provides a complete summary of all of the relevant labor and employment legislation recently signed—and vetoed—in California….

What Employers Need to Know About Delaware’s New Anti-Sexual Harassment Law
Source: Zachary R. Davis and Jennifer A. Ermilio, Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, Spring 2019
(subscription required)

A new law expands the Delaware Discrimination in Employment Act to add a section on sexual harassment. In addition, a recent federal court case makes compliance even more important for Delaware employers (as well as those in New Jersey and Pennsylvania). This article provides a brief summary of Delaware’s new anti-harassment law and the case, along with compliance tips for employers…..

Many Changes Lie Ahead for Companies in the #MeToo Era
Source: Charrise L. Alexander, Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4, Spring 2019
(subscription required)

For a very long time, companies dealt with sexual assault and harassment allegations quietly and in backrooms. However, thanks to the turning tide, more companies are reexamining their internal policies, encouraging change in corporate culture, and addressing sexual assault, harassment, and discrimination claims more directly. The author of this article discusses the changes and recommends that a good insurance program be a part of those changes.

Closing the Gender Pay Gap: New Approaches to an Old Problem

Source: Kurt Stanberry, Compensation & Benefits Review, First Published March 14, 2019

from the abstract:
This article addresses new approaches to address a long-standing employment compensation problem—the gender pay gap. Existing approaches, including the Equal Pay Act and Title VII, are more than 50 years old, and have only been marginally successful in resolving this problem. A pay gap based on gender remains a problem today. New approaches include the potential passage of the Paycheck Fairness Act at the federal level and a variety of laws at the state level. Some states have passed pay equity laws that are more successful than the federal law due to the use of the comparable work concept. Additionally, some states have passed laws regulating the asking of salary history questions, as well as the use of non-compete and no-poaching agreements, all of which have a chilling effect on pay equity. The result of the combination of these actions is a probable reduction of the gender pay gap, although eliminating it remains a distant goal.