We already know how to reduce sexual harassment at work, and the answer is actually pretty simple: Hire and promote more women. Research suggests that this solution addresses two root causes of harassment.
…. But a question #MeToo has been asking since the beginning is how will this affect the lives of women far from the high-powered worlds of Hollywood and Washington. Is this making it any easier for a low or mid-wage worker in middle America to rid her workplace of a sexual harasser?
One important way of doing this is by making an official complaint to the employer. But while women will often complain to family or even on social media, most don’t tell their companies of the misconduct. In fact, barely 1 in 4 ever do. ….
From the press release:
While women in the U.S. who work full time, year round are typically paid just 80 cents for every dollar paid to their male counterparts, the wage gap between working mothers and fathers is even larger. Mothers typically are paid only 71 cents for every dollar paid to fathers, which translates to a loss of $16,000 annually, according to new National Women’s Law Center (NWLC) analysis of Census data. The motherhood wage gap exists in every state and can mean mothers lose thousands of dollars more than the national figure: mothers do best in Maine, where they are paid 85 cents for every dollar paid to fathers, and worst in Utah, where they are paid only 58 cents for every dollar paid to fathers. ….
Key findings of the analysis include:
– More than 2 in 5 mothers (42.2 percent) are employed in one of twelve occupations, and in every one of those occupations, mothers are paid between 52 cents and 85 cents for every dollar paid to fathers.
– The wage gap exists for mothers at every education level.
– Among full-time, year-round workers, mothers with a high school degree make just 68 cents for every dollar paid to fathers with a high school degree.
– Fathers who earn a master’s degree or a doctoral degree are typically paid $100,000 and $115,000 respectively. Conversely, mothers who complete these degrees are typically paid no more than $90,000 annually.
– Asian/Pacific Islander mothers are paid 85 cents for every dollar paid to white, non-Hispanic fathers; white, non-Hispanic mothers are paid 69 cents; Black mothers, 54 cents; Native mothers, 49 cents; and Latina mothers, 46 cents. The wage gap persists for mothers of all ages
Blame for the gender wage gap in the United States shouldn’t fall on women, report researchers.
In a review paper, they draw on existing psychological research to highlight myths regarding the gap between men and women and to offer possible explanations for why it exists. ….
5 myths about the gender wage gap:
Myth 1: Women aren’t doing equal work. ….
Myth 2: Women leave the workplace to have and raise children. ….
Myth 3: Women choose less lucrative professions. ….
Myth 4: Women don’t ask for what they want. ….
Myth 5: Women don’t have as much education or experience as men. ….
6 ways organizations can eliminate the wage gap:
1. Identify and remove barriers. ….
2. Provide equal growth opportunities. ….
3. Take action toward implementing better work/life balance. ….
4. Provide ongoing training. ….
5. Have anti-discrimination policies. ….
6. Have and promote male allies. ….
Victim Precipitation and the Wage Gap
Source: Shannon Cheng, Abigail Corrington, Mikki Hebl, Linnea Ng, Volume 11, Issue 1 March 2018
In response to: Beyond Blaming the Victim: Toward a More Progressive Understanding of Workplace Mistreatment
From the abstract:
Cortina, Rabelo, and Holland (2018) accurately cite the general public’s overuse of victim precipitation ideologies, or the notion that victims engage in actions that directly bring about their unfortunate circumstances. These ideologies also have permeated industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology and the study of people in the workplace (e.g., women’s choice in clothing leads to sexual harassment, certain target characteristics and actions incite workplace bullying). We agree with Cortina et al. that this ideology unintentionally benefits the perpetrator by placing blame and responsibility for nonoptimal workplace situations directly on the target. The field of I-O psychology needs to move away from this model of victim blaming as a remediation for workplace disparities.
From the overview:
Most working mothers return home to a second shift of unpaid housework and caregiving after their official workday ends. When paid work, household labor, and child care are combined, working mothers spend more time working than fathers.
Women continue to earn less than men in nearly all occupations, but this is more pronounced in fields that predominantly employ men and in professions with a comparable mix of men and women. The largest pay gap is within the finance and sales professions.
Overall, women are also more likely to be employed in lower-paying jobs.
The data highlighted above comes from a recently released detailed table from the American Community Survey. It looks at the gender pay gap for more than 300 occupations. ….
…..Seven months after the #MeToo movement began, state lawmakers across the country are still grappling with how to root out what many say is a longstanding misogynist culture in statehouses. After dozens of sexual harassment accusations against sitting male state lawmakers, at least 16 legislators in a dozen states have resigned or been expelled, according to a Stateline tally.
In many states, accused lawmakers were knocked from leadership posts, or voluntarily relinquished them, while remaining in office. Others apologized and kept their positions, or maintain their innocence.
As many legislative sessions end, many of the substantial policy changes that state lawmakers were hoping for — such as creating a private and safe method for victims to come forward and a nonpartisan way for bad behavior to be punished — remain elusive…..
The #MeToo and #TimesUp movements have put a national spotlight on workplace sexual harassment. As members of a female-dominated profession, nurses have long dealt with on-the-job sexual harassment, and the problem persists in today’s workplace.
From the summary:
Single mothers enrolled in postsecondary education face substantial time demands that make persistence and graduation difficult. Just 28 percent of single mothers graduate with a degree or certificate within 6 years of enrollment and another 55 percent leave school before earning a college credential (IWPR 2017a). The combination of raising a family on their own, going to class, completing coursework, and holding a job can place serious constraints on single mothers’ time that can force them to make hard choices about their pursuit of higher education. Expanded supports for single mothers in college would allow more women to consider and complete college degrees and enjoy economically secure futures.
Practical advice on some of the most uncomfortable—and important—things you could do for your career.
Source: NOLO, 2018
Can you be required to take a drug test? Who is entitled to earn overtime? What kinds of conduct fall under the definition of illegal discrimination and harassment — and what should you do if you are a victim? Can you take time off work to care for a new child, serve in the military, cast your ballot, or recover from a serious illness? Get detailed answers to all of your questions about workplace rights here.
Your Workplace Rights
Source: Workplace Fairness, 2018
Hiring & Classifications
Looking for a new job? Wondering if the questions you were asked at the interview were legal? This section addresses some of the most common issues you may encounter in the hiring process, and how you are classified as a worker may affect your workplace rights.
Are you being treated differently at work? If so, is it because of your race, sex, age, disability, national origin or religion? Wondering what other kinds of discrimination are illegal? Get the facts on workplace discrimination here.
Harassment & Other Workplace Problems
Whether you’re being pressured to have sex with your boss, forced to listen to foul language or slurs, or wondering whether the comment you made might get you in trouble, you’ll find this information on harassment and other problems you might encounter on the job to be helpful.
Unpaid Wages/Wage & Hour Problems
Not getting paid what your employer owes you? Are you forced to work overtime, but not receiving any extra pay? Get the facts on “wage and hour” laws here.
Benefits & Leaves
For most employees, your job isn’t just about the pay, but also what benefits are included. Sick leave, disability leave, family/medical leave–the different kinds of leave you may be allowed to take can be confusing. Get information about health care coverage, pensions, leave eligibility and other benefit-related information here.
Privacy & Workplace Surveillance
Is somebody watching you? It just might be your employer. Find out here what rights to privacy in the workplace you do and do not have.
Health & Safety/Workplace Injuries
Is your workplace unsafe? Are you worried about getting hurt at work? Wondering what to do about it? Have questions about the workers’ compensation system? Find the answers here.
Whistleblowing & Retaliation
Fighting back when you see your employer doing something wrong can be scary, and risky. But there are laws that can protect you in a number of situations. Learn more about how you might be protected when you blow the whistle or challenge illegal conduct.
Unions & Collective Action
Facing an organizing campaign at work (or want to get involved in one)? Already a union member but don’t understand how things work? Fired for organizing or joining a union? This section covers information about your rights to organize and be in a union, and how unions work.
Termination & Unemployment
Whether you were suddenly fired, laid off, or asked to resign, you’ll want to know what happens now that you are out of a job.