Category Archives: Working Women

Emotional Inequality: Solutions for Women in the Workplace

Source: VitalSmarts, 2015
(registration required)

From the summary:
What if your colleagues discriminated against you, just for being assertive? Unfortunately, gender bias is a reality in today’s workplace. A new study from VitalSmarts reveals women’s perceived competency drops by 35 percent and their perceived worth by $15,088 when they are equally as assertive or forceful as their male colleagues.

Emotional inequality is real and it is unfair. And while it is unacceptable and needs to be addressed at a cultural, legal, organizational, and social level, individuals can take control. Those who use a brief framing statement that demonstrates deliberation and forethought reduce the social backlash and emotion-inequality effects by 27 percent.
Related:
Emotional Inequality: Skills to Minimize Social Backlash
Source: David Maxfield, Joseph Grenny & Chase McMillan, VitalSmarts, Research Report, 2015

Emotional Inequality: Solutions for women in the workplace
Source: David Maxfield, Joseph Grenny & Chase McMillan, VitalSmarts, eBook, 2015

Gender Bias Is Real: Women’s Perceived Competency Drops Significantly When Judged As Being Forceful
Source: Kathy Caprino, Forbes, August 25, 2015

A new study by New York Times bestselling authors, Joseph Grenny and David Maxfield revealed that gender bias in the workplace is real, finding that women’s perceived competency drops by 35% and their perceived worth falls by $15,088 when they are judged as being “forceful” or “assertive.” Compare this with the drops in competency and worth that men experience when being judged as forceful: their competency drops by 22% and their worth falls by $6,547. This significant difference reveals a true gender bias that prohibits women from succeeding fully in leadership and management roles where assertiveness is, of course, a crucial behavior…..

The Union Advantage for Women

Source: Julie Anderson, Ariane Hegewisch, and Jeff Hayes, Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR), Briefing Paper, IWPR #R409, August 2015

From the press release:
A new briefing paper released by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) finds that women represented by a union in the United States earn an average of $212 more per week than women in nonunion jobs. In addition, union women earn more in every state, with the size of the union wage advantage varying across states: union women in Wyoming earn $349 per week more than their nonunion counterparts in the state, while union women in the District of Columbia earn $48 more per week than D.C.’s nonunion women. The analysis also finds that the size of the union wage advantage is large enough in 32 states to cover the costs of full-time child care for an infant in a center.

Women’s share of union members has increased markedly in the last three decades, from 33.6 percent in 1984 to 45.5 percent in 2014. While men are more likely than women to be in labor unions or covered by a union contract in the United States as a whole (13.1 percent of men, compared with 11.9 percent of women), there are eight jurisdictions—California, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, and Vermont—where women are more likely to be unionized than men. More than one in four female workers (25.7 percent) in New York are in a labor union or covered by a union contract. Nationally, public sector workers are five times more likely to belong to a union than private sector workers (35.7 percent, compared with 6.6 percent).
Related:
Abstract

How the New Overtime Rule Will Help Women & Families

Source: Heidi Hartmann, Kristin Rowe-Finkbeiner, Hero Ashman, Jeff Hayes, Hailey Nguyen, Institute for Women’s Policy Research and MomsRising, August 2015

From the abstract:
This report, a collaboration between the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) and MomsRising, is an analysis of the U.S. Department of Labor’s proposed change to the overtime threshold and how this change will affect working women. The report focuses on the 5.9 million workers who would be “newly covered” by the proposed increase and explores the differences in the impacts of the higher earnings threshold by sex, and among women by race/ethnicity, household type, and occupation.

States Serving Veterans

Source: Capitol Ideas, Vol. 58 no. 4, July-August 2015

Articles include:
Addressing Mental Health
by Debra Miller
Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental health concerns can make the transition to civilian life hard for those coming home from war. But states are creating new programs and services to help make that readjustment easier.

Women Veterans
by Jennifer Ginn
Women have fought for and earned the right to serve alongside men in combat zones like Iraq and Afghanistan. New state programs aim to ensure that women soldiers also receive equal treatment and programming when they come back home.

Veteran Legislators
by Jennifer Ginn
The number of active duty military members or veterans in Congress has been shrinking for decades. We asked three state legislators how their service in the military has affected them as policymakers and hat they think this tend of veterans missing from capitols means for states.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 at 50: Past, Present, and Future

Source: Boston Law Review, Volume 95, Number 3, May 2015

More detailed information about this symposium, including video recordings of the panels and keynote addresses is available here.

From an abstract:
This Symposium, “The Civil Rights Act of 1964 at 50: Past, Present, and Future,” published in the Boston University Law Review (volume 95, pp. 683-1232), observes the fiftieth anniversary of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964. Growing out of a live conference held at Boston University School of Law in November 2014, the Symposium includes twenty-two articles by prominent scholars from law, economic history, political science, and sociology. Topics addressed include: (1) historical perspectives on the 1964 Act and other civil rights laws; (2) classifications and categories in the 1964 Act and in subsequent civil rights laws; (3) reshaping public and private space in public accommodations, neighborhoods, and housing; (4) reshaping public and private space in education, the workplace, and the military; (5) proving discrimination; and (6) the limits and future of antidiscrimination law. The Symposium concludes with remarks on the role of transformational leadership in the civil rights movement by a colleague at Boston University’s School of Theology, the alma mater of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The articles are also available for download at the website of the Boston University Law Review.

Articles include:
Editors’ Foreword

PANEL I: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
The Long Civil Rights Act and Criminal Justice
Margaret Burnham

Intersectionality and Title VII: A Brief (Pre-)History
Serena Mayeri

Private Rights and Private Actions: The Legacy of Civil Rights in the Enforcement of Title VII
George Rutherglen

The Regional Economic Impact of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Gavin Wright

PANEL II: CLASSIFICATIONS AND CATEGORIES IN THE 1964 ACT AND IN SUBSEQUENT CIVIL RIGHTS LAWS
Reading Amendments and Expansions of Title VII Narrowly
Henry L. Chambers, Jr.

Marital Status Discrimination 2.0
Courtney G. Joslin

Backlash, Courts, and Disability Rights
Michael Waterstone

PANEL III: RESHAPING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SPACE: PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS, NEIGHBORHOODS, AND HOUSING
Can’t We Be Your Neighbor? Trayvon Martin, George Zimmerman, and the Resistance to Blacks as Neighbors
Jeannine Bell

Model Neighborhoods Through Mayors’ Eyes Fifty Years After the Civil Rights Act
Katherine Levine Einstein & David M. Glick

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and “Legislating Morality”: On Conscience, Prejudice, and Whether “Stateways” can Change “Folkways”
Linda C. McClain

We Don’t Serve Your Kind Here: Public Accommodations and the Mark of Sodom
Joseph William Singer

Bargaining for Civil Rights: Lessons from Mrs. Murphy for Same-Sex Marriage and LGBT Rights
Robin Fretwell Wilson

PANEL IV: RESHAPING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SPACE: EDUCATION, THE WORKPLACE, AND THE MILITARY
On Not “Having It Both Ways” and Still Losing: Reflections on Fifty Years of Pregnancy Litigation Under Title VII
Deborah L. Brake

Right to Serve or Responsibility to Protect? Civil Rights Framing and the DADT Repeal
Catherine Connell

Moving Forward, Looking Back: A Retrospective on Sexual Harassment Law
Joanna L. Grossman

Reactive to Proactive: Title IX’s Unrealized Capacity to Prevent Campus Sexual Assault
Katharine Silbaugh

PANEL V: PROVING DISCRIMINATION
On Employment Discrimination and Police Misconduct: Title VII and the Mirage of the “Monell Analogue”
Tristin K. Green

Class-Based Adjudication of Title VII Claims in the Age of the Roberts Court
Michael C. Harper

Addressing Systemic Discrimination: Public Enforcement and the Role of the EEOC
Pauline T. Kim

Special Treatment Everywhere, Special Treatment Nowhere
Noah D. Zatz

PANEL VI: THE LIMITS AND FUTURE OF ANTIDISCRIMINATION LAW
The Horizontal Effect of a Right to Non-Discrimination in Employment: Religious Autonomy Under the U.S. Constitution and the Constitution of South Africa
Sonu Bedi

Blaming Mothers: A Disability Perspective
Ruth Colker

RECEPTION ADDRESS
Now We Must Cross a Sea: Remarks on Transformational Leadership and the Civil Rights Movement
Walter Earl Fluker

Who Minds the Kids When Mom Works a Nonstandard Schedule?

Source: Maria E. Enchautegui, Martha C. Johnson, Julia Gelatt, Urban Institute, Research Report, July 16, 2015

From the abstract:
This paper examines the child care arrangements of mothers who work evenings, nights, or irregular schedules rather than regular daytime hours. Low-income working mothers in nonstandard schedules show greater use of any type of child care than low–income standard-schedule mothers and are more likely to use multiple child care arrangements. Partners are important sources of child care for mothers working nonstandard hours, and single parents rely on other relatives for child care at high rates. Nonstandard-schedule workers need not only child care at irregular hours but also more-flexible daytime care.

Work Schedules and Working Families: Solutions to a Growing Problem

Source: Sherry Leiwant, Carrie Gleason & Shawn Sebastian, Clearinghouse Review, June 2015

Workers’ control over their schedules and abusive scheduling practices have grown more significant as the American workforce has changed over the last decade, with women becoming half of all workers and the tremendous growth of hourly low-wage work. Here we lay out the economic context for scheduling problems, discuss the few laws that reach work schedules, and outline some of the recent proposed policy solutions to these emerging problems.

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)

Source: Austin Nichols, Jesse Rothstein, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), NBER Working Paper No. 21211, May 2015
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
We review research on the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), focusing on work appearing since the Hotz and Scholz (2003) review. Recent work has confirmed earlier findings that labor supply effects are positive for single mothers, smaller and negative for married mothers, and essentially nonexistent for men. Where earlier estimates indicated that all responses were on the extensive margin, some recent studies find evidence of non-zero, but small, intensive margin effects. We also review research on the incidence of the credit, suggesting that employers capture some of the program benefits through lower wages; on the large impact of the program on poverty rates and on children’s outcomes; and on families’ apparent preferences for lump-sum refunds over smaller payments distributed throughout the year. We present new evidence regarding the accuracy of EITC imputations in the Current Population Survey. We discuss proposals for reform, including a more generous childless credit, and argue that the EITC may be complementary to the minimum wage, rather than an alternative.

Having a Working Mother Is Good For You

Source: Harvard Business School, Press Release, May 18, 2015

Contrary to conventional wisdom, growing up with a working mother is unlikely to harm children socially and economically when they become adults, new research by a Harvard Business School professor concludes. The “working mother effect” actually improves future prospects, especially for adult daughters of mothers who worked outside the home before their daughters were 14 years old, according to recent findings based on a comprehensive survey of 50,000 adults aged 18 to 60 in 25 nations worldwide in 2002 and 2012. The research, which provides the basis for two forthcoming academic papers, is one of a number of projects led by faculty affiliated with Harvard Business School’s new Gender Initiative. The Gender Initiative, announced today, seeks to further research, education, and knowledge dissemination on issues related to gender and work….