Category Archives: Workforce

2019 State of the Workforce Report: Pay, Promotions and Retention

Source: Ahu Yildirmaz, Christopher Ryan, Jeff Nezaj, ADP Research Institute, June 2019

All employers face the fundamental challenge of structuring, rewarding and motivating their organization’s workforce for optimal productivity and overall business performance. Unfortunately, there is no magic formula for success that works in all situations. Each employer faces its own unique circumstances — mission, market demand, competitive differentiation, labor availability and cost structure, among other things — that drive continuous change. Existing literature suggests that an organization’s ability to adapt to these changes is fundamental to the organization’s survival.

…. As a comprehensive, up-to-date source of organizational data, the findings in the report provide a solid basis for firms to understand their own organizational dynamics and improve performance.

Key observations from this inaugural study illustrate some of the ways employers can use this data:
– On average, employers will promote 8.9 percent of their employees annually, and those employees will receive an average wage increase of 17.4 percent
– Firms are more likely to promote internal employees for management positions
– Promotions within a team are associated with higher turnover among other team members
– Employee turnover varies significantly with demographic factors
– Males and females show significant disparities across pay and organizational hierarchies

The Future Of Work 2.0: Navigating The Transition To New Possibilities

Source: David Gibson, Aspen Institute, Report Of The 2018 Aspen Institute Roundtable On Institutional Innovation, 2019

From the summary:
Today’s leading businesses are dealing with a changing work environment that goes beyond artificial intelligence and robots. Instead, it encompasses the work machines and humans will do together. This report of the 2018 Roundtable, written by David Gibson, explores the Future of Work 2.0—focusing on how all stakeholders can realize the opportunities and possibilities of automation in the work landscape. It features a robust discussion on education, business structures, models of employment and leadership philosophies.

Chapters include:
Introduction
AI, Robotics and the Future of Work
Building the New Workspace
Maximizing Human Capital
The Future of Leadership

Visit the interactive Institutional Innovation report website to further explore the report.

Robotic health care is coming to a hospital near you

Source: Mattie Milner, Stephen Rice, The Conversation, May 7, 2019

Medical robots are helping doctors and other professionals save time, lower costs and shorten patient recovery times, but patients may not be ready. Our research into human perceptions of automated health care finds that people are wary of getting their health care from an automated system, but that they can adjust to the idea – especially if it saves them money.

Hospitals and medical practices are already using a fair amount of automation. For instance, in one San Francisco hospital and other places, delivery robots – about the size of a mini-fridge – zip through the hallways delivering pills, bringing lunch to patients and ferrying specimens and medical equipment to different labs. Some hospitals are set up for delivery robots to open remote-control doors and even use elevators to get around the building.

Workforce Automation: Better Data Needed to Assess and Plan for Effects of Advanced Technologies on Jobs

Source: GAO-19-257, Published: March 7, 2019

From the summary:
Robots, artificial intelligence, and other advanced technologies are changing the workplace. We visited companies to observe the effects on workers. Effects varied, with some companies reducing their workforces, many moving workers to different roles, and some hiring workers due to increased production or new skill needs.

Workforce data doesn’t identify the causes of employment shifts, making it difficult to assess technology’s effects. Additional information could help agencies design programs to prepare workers for jobs of the future.

We recommended that the Department of Labor develop ways to better track workforce effects of technologies…..

Women, Automation, and the Future of Work

Source: Ariane Hegewisch, Chandra Childers, Heidi Hartmann, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, IWPR #C47, March 13, 2019

From the executive summary:
From driverless cars to factories operated by robots and stores with self-checkout systems, automation and technology are changing the way we perceive and do work. But how do all these technological changes affect men and women differently?

According to Women, Automation, and the Future of Work, an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) report, technological change will affect men and women differently in a number of ways. The first study of its kind in the United States, this report estimates the risk of automation across occupations by gender and presents a comprehensive picture of what we know—and what we don’t—about how the future of work will affect women workers.

This study finds that discussions about technological change and the future of work must include gender as part of the analysis. That’s because the jobs most commonly held by women—cashiers,secretaries, and bookkeeping clerks, for example—face some of the highest risks of becoming automated in the future. And while men are not immune to the risks of technological change, women are even more likely to work in jobs where technology and automation threaten to displace them.

This report examines not only the impact of these technological shifts on the quantity of jobs but also the quality of jobs in the future. Drawing on occupational projections from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and recent research on the potential for automation across occupations, IWPR researchers developed a Future of Work Database to analyze the potential impact of technological changes on:

■ the number of jobs
■ the nature of work and how it’s done
■ the quality of work
■ the future of work and family

By increasing our understanding of the potential impact of these technological changes, we can create more gender-aware policies that will increase equality and the quality of jobs in the coming decades.

Automation and a Changing Economy

Source: Conor McKay, Ethan Pollack & Alastair Fitzpayne, Aspen Institute, Future of Work Initiative, April 2019

Automation is an important ingredient driving economic growth and progress. Automation has enabled us to feed a growing population while allowing workers to transition from subsistence farming to new forms of work. Automation helped moved us from a craft system to mass production, from blue-collar to white-collar to “new collar” work—with better work, higher wages, more jobs, and better living standards.

But without adequate policies and institutions, automation can also have negative effects on individuals and communities. Emerging technologies—including artificial intelligence, machine learning, and advanced robotics—have the potential to automate many tasks currently performed by workers, leading to renewed questions over what the future holds for the American workforce. We must ensure the proper support structures are in place to promote opportunity and prosperity for all.
Automation and a Changing Economy is divided into two sections.

Part I, Automation and a Changing Economy: The Case for Action, explores how automation impacts the economic security and opportunity of the American worker…..

Part II of this report, Automation and a Changing Economy: Policies for Shared Prosperity, outlines a program to address automation’s challenges and opportunities……

Related:
Executive Summary

America at Work: A National Mosaic and Roadmap for Tomorrow

Source: Wal-Mart, 2019

From the press release:
… Now automation promises to radically reshape the next generation of work in America. Some see automation as a threat — the source of widespread job displacement. Others see it as an opportunity — the source of higher-skilled, higher-paid jobs as technology takes over tedious and repetitive tasks. All agree that automation has arrived and is quickly changing the American workplace. ….

America at Work: A National Mosaic and Roadmap for Tomorrow examines resiliency, or the capacity to respond to change — in this case, automation. The report examines more than 3,000 counties in the United States with the goal of helping communities plan for their individual situations and develop responses that will position them to survive and thrive in a changing economy.

Counties are broken into eight community archetypes: Urban Centers & Core Suburbs, Urban Periphery, Smaller Independent Economies, Americana, Distressed Americana, Rural Service Hubs, Great Escapes and Resource-Rich Regions. ….

Openings for State Jobs Are Up, So Why Are Applications Down?

Source: Katherine Barrett & Richard Greene, Governing, March 25, 2019

A new study shows the depth — and the root causes — of the public sector’s workforce problem.

– A National Association of State Chief Administrators survey shows that state government job postings rose 11 percent from 2013 to 2017.
– Meanwhile, the number of people applying to state jobs dropped by 24 percent.
– CAOs cited noncompetitive salaries, negative perceptions about public service and insufficient recruitment as reasons.

Related:
Job One: Reimagine Today’s State Government Workforce
Source: Kayla Leslie, National Association of State Chief Administrators, March 2019

From the press release:
U.S. state governments face growing challenges attracting, building and retaining critically important talent and workforce skills, according to new research from the National Association of State Chief Administrators (NASCA) in collaboration with Accenture (NYSE: ACN) and NEOGOV.

Based on surveys of chief administrators and human resource (HR) directors in 33 states, a survey of nearly 3,000 state-government job seekers, and analyses of over 14,000,000 public sector job postings, the research — published today in a report titled Job One: Reimagine Today’s State Government Workforce — shows a widening gap between the number of open jobs and the number of applicants but also highlights strategies to help reverse the trend…..

Automation and New Tasks: How Technology Displaces and Reinstates Labor

Source: Daron Acemoglu – MIT and NBER, Pascual Restrepo – Boston University, March 5, 2019

From the abstract:
We present a framework for understanding the effects of automation and other types of technological changes on labor demand, and use it to interpret changes in US employment over the recent past. At the center of our framework is the allocation of tasks to capital and labor—the task content of production. Automation, which enables capital to replace labor in tasks it was previously engaged in, shifts the task content of production against labor because of a displacement effect. As a result, automation always reduces the labor share in value added and may reduce labor demand even as it raises productivity. The effects of automation are counterbalanced by the creation of new tasks in which labor has a comparative advantage. The introduction of new tasks changes the task content of production in favor of labor because of a reinstatement effect,and always raises the labor share and labor demand. We show how the role of changes in the task content of production—due to automation and new tasks—can be inferred from industry-level data. Our empirical decomposition suggests that the slower growth of employment over the last three decades is accounted for by an acceleration in the displacement effect, especially in manufacturing, a weaker reinstatement effect, and slower growth of productivity than in previous decades