Category Archives: Uncategorized

Noise and neurotoxic chemical exposure relationship to workplace traumatic injuries: A review

Source: Cheryl Fairfield Estill, Carol H. Rice, Thais Morata, Amit Bhattacharya, Journal of Safety Research, New Articles in Press, December 8, 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
More than 5,000 fatalities and eight million injuries occurred in the workplace in 2007 at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Neurotoxic chemicals are known to affect central nervous system functions among workers, which include balance and hearing disorders. However, it is not known if there is an association between exposure to noise and solvents and acute injuries. Method: A thorough review was conducted of the literature on the relationship between noise or solvent exposures and hearing loss with various health outcomes. Results: The search resulted in 41 studies. Health outcomes included: hearing loss, workplace injuries, absence from work due to sickness, fatalities, hospital admissions due to workplace accidents, traffic accidents, hypertension, balance, slip, trips, or falls, cognitive measures, or disability retirement. Important covariates in these studies were age of employee, type of industry or occupation, or length of employment. Discussion: Most authors that evaluated noise exposure concluded that higher exposure to noise resulted in more of the chosen health effect but the relationship is not well understood. Studies that evaluated hearing loss found that hearing loss was related to occupational injury, disability retirement, or traffic accidents. Studies that assessed both noise exposure and hearing loss as risk factors for occupational injuries reported that hearing loss was related to occupational injuries as much or more than noise exposure. Evidence suggests that solvent exposure is likely to be related to accidents or other health consequences such balance disorders. Conclusions: Many authors reported that noise exposures and hearing loss, respectively, are likely to be related to occupational accidents. Practical applications: The potential significance of the study is that findings could be used by managers to reduce injuries and the costs associated with those injures.

Highlights
• 14 studies showed an increase in injuries (or other health outcome) with increased levels of noise exposure.
• Eight of the nine studies showed significant differences in the health outcome with greater levels of hearing loss.
• Few studies report a relationship between solvent exposures and injuries.
• Very few studies report a combined relationship of noise and solvent exposures and injuries.

2016 Healthcare Salary Guide

Source: Health eCareers, 2016

Our 2016 Salary Guide is a comprehensive look at healthcare compensation, benefits and more! Take a sneak peek, then download the full guide using the form below. Find out how your pay stacks up against other healthcare professionals when it comes to specialty, location and experience using our Salary Calculator, then download our annual Salary Guide for even more information, including salary and job satisfaction stats, benefits and employee concerns.

Trends in College Spending: 2003–2013 – Where Does the Money Come From? Where Does It Go? What Does It Buy?

Source: Donna M. Desrochers and Steven Hurlburt, Delta Cost Project, January 2016

Trends in College Spending: 2003–2013 examines college and university finances during one of the most turbulent economic periods in decades. The financial ramifications of the 2008 recession were vast, affecting students’ ability to pay for college, lawmakers’ prioritization of public resources, and the budgetary environment facing higher education leaders. The challenges brought by the fiscal crisis also provided colleges and universities with an opportunity to reevaluate how they allocated resources and rethink how to manage costs and improve student outcomes.

Like previous Trends in College Spending reports, this update is meant to aid readers in developing a deeper understanding of how colleges collect and spend money and the outcomes they produce. Financial and performance trends during the 2003–2013 decade suggest that, five years after the onset of the recession, higher education finally began to show signs of a fiscal recovery.

Spending increases were widespread in 2013, with all types of public and private institutions spending, on average, more per student than the year before. Public and private research and master’s institutions experienced the strongest resurgence, as educational spending per student returned near the peak levels observed before the recession. The strongest revenue growth occurred among public research universities and private institutions. Public community colleges also saw a particularly strong financial turnaround in 2013, aided by sharp enrollment declines that eased strained budgets and boosted per-student financial measures, although they remained well below their prerecession operating levels…..
Related:
Delta Cost Project Database
The Delta Cost Project Database is updated with 2012-2013 data. These data have been translated into analytical formats to allow for longitudinal analyses of trends in postsecondary education, with a focus on revenues and expenditures.

Trends in College Spending (TCS) Online
TCS Online is updated with 2007-2012 data. This user-friendly data tool provides information on revenues, spending, and outcomes for individual colleges and universities and for the U.S.

The Impact of Tax and Expenditure Limits on Municipal Credit Ratings

Source: Craig S. Maher, Steven C. Deller, Judith I. Stallmann, and Sungho Park, American Review of Public Administration, OnlineFirst, July 1, 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
The research focuses on the impact of the restrictiveness of tax and expenditure limitations (TELs) on the credit ratings of 566 U.S. municipalities over the 2007-2010 time period. The credit ratings used are by Moody’s rating agency, and municipal fiscal data are drawn from the Government Financial Officers Association’s (GFOA) Certificate of Achievement for Excellence in Financial Reporting program. Results suggest that more restrictive TELs imposed on municipalities by the states have a weak negative impact on credit ratings which will likely force municipalities to face higher interest costs.

Returns on Investment in California County Departments of Public Health

Source: Timothy T. Brown, American Journal of Public Health, Published online ahead of print June 16, 2016
(Subscription required)

From the abstract:
Objectives: To estimate the average return on investment for the overall activities of county departments of public health in California.

Methods: I gathered the elements necessary to estimate the average return on investment for county departments of public health in California during the period 2001 to 2008–2009. These came from peer-reviewed journal articles published as part of a larger project to develop a method for determining return on investment for public health by using a health economics framework. I combined these elements by using the standard formula for computing return on investment, and performed a sensitivity analysis. Then I compared the return on investment for county departments of public health with the returns on investment generated for various aspects of medical care.

Results: The estimated return on investment from $1 invested in county departments of public health in California ranges from $67.07 to $88.21.

Conclusions: The very large estimated return on investment for California county departments of public health relative to the return on investment for selected aspects of medical care suggests that public health is a wise investment.

Explaining Durable Business Coalitions in U.S. Politics: Conservatives and Corporate Interests across America’s Statehouses

Source: Alexander Hertel-Fernandez, Studies in American Political Development, FirstView Article, Published online: 22 March 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Scholars of business mobilization emphasize that national, cross-sector employer associations are difficult to create and maintain in decentralized pluralist polities like the United States. This article considers an unusual case of a U.S. business group—the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)—that has succeeded in creating a durable coalition of diverse firms and conservative political activists. This group has emerged since the 1970s as an important infrastructure for facilitating corporate involvement in the policymaking process across states. Assessing variation within this group over time through both its successes and missteps, I show the importance of organizational strategies for cementing political coalitions between otherwise fractious political activists and corporate executives from diverse industries. A shadow comparison between ALEC and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce further serves to reinforce the importance of organizational structure for business association management. My findings engage with literatures in both American business history and comparative political economy, underscoring the difficulties of forming business coalitions in liberal political economies while also showing how savvy political entrepreneurs can still successfully unite otherwise fragmented corporate interests. These conclusions, in turn, have implications for our understanding of business mobilization and corporate influence in politics.

Police Culture in the Twenty-First Century: A Critique of the President’s Task Force’s Final Report

Source: Julian A. Cook, University of Georgia Law School, UGA Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-5, February 15, 2016

From the abstract:
In May 2015, the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, established by President Barack Obama to address problems associated with aggressive policing, issued its Final Report which details a comprehensive set of recommendations. This essay examines an important theme of the Final Report — the reforming of police culture — and concludes that the report’s well-intentioned recommendations are destined to fail absent meaningful revitalization of the Fourth Amendment exclusionary rule and the establishment of a robust standing doctrine.

Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017

Source: Office of Management and Budget, February 2016

From the overview:
….The Budget makes critical investments in our domestic and national security priorities while adhering to the bipartisan budget agreement signed into law last fall, and it lifts sequestration in future years so that we continue to invest in our economic future and our national security. It also drives down deficits and maintains our fiscal progress through smart savings from health care, immigration, and tax reforms.

The Budget shows that the President and the Administration remain focused on meeting our greatest challenges – including accelerating the pace of innovation to tackle climate change and find new treatments for devastating diseases; giving everyone a fair shot at opportunity and economic security; and advancing our national security and global leadership – not only for the year ahead, but for decades to come…..

Related:
President’s Message
Analytical Perspectives
Historical Tables
Supplemental Materials
Appendix
Past Budgets
Mid-Session Review
Statements
Press Releases
Reports and Other Public Documents
The budget on GovInfo