Category Archives: Statistics

Discrimination Across the Sectors: A Comparison of Discrimination Trends in Private and Public Organizations

Source: Megan Leasher, Corey Miller, Public Personnel Management, Volume 41 No. 2, Summer 2012
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Difference and similarities between public and private sector organizations have been hypothesized and researched for several decades. This study investigated the differences in claims of employment discrimination reported for employees within the private and public sectors. A longitudinal database of statewide discrimination claims was analyzed to determine if differences in employment discrimination patterns or levels exist between the sectors. Theoretical and practical implications are presented in addition to propositions for future research.

Accounting for the Non-Employment of U.S. Men, 1968-2010

Source: Marianna Kudlyak,Thomas A. Lubik, Jonathan Tompkins, Economic Quarterly, Volume 97, Number 4, Fourth Quarter 2011

Men in their prime working age, defined as men between the ages of 25 and 64, constitute 33 percent of the civilian non-institutionalized population in the United States. At the trough of the 1969-1970 recession, 6.5 percent of this group (henceforth, “population”) were out of the labor force (OLF), 90.8 percent were employed, and 2.7 percent were unemployed. Since then, the employment-to-population ratio has trended persistently downward, while the OLF-to-population ratio has increased substantially.
In 2010, the aftermath of the 2007-2009 recession, the employment-to-population ratio of this same group declined to an all-time low of 76.3 percent, while the OLF-to-population ratio increased to an all-time high of 14.7 percent.

In this article, we investigate the extent to which the change in the sociodemographic composition of the population (by age, educational attainment, marital status, and race) has contributed to the changes in the aggregate labor market outcomes. Our emphasis on the compositional changes in the sociodemographic characteristics of the population is motivated by a literature rife with correlations between sociodemographic factors and labor market outcomes. In particular, older workers typically experience lower rates of labor force participation and, conditional on participating, older workers are less likely to be unemployed than younger workers (see, for example, Shimer 1999). The literature also finds that (i) more highly educated workers have a higher opportunity cost of not working; (ii) married men are more likely to participate in the labor force and, conditional on participation, more likely to be employed; and (iii) non-white persons are usually underrepresented in the labor force and employment. Thus, one expects a strong association between labor market outcomes and the demographic composition of the labor force, which serves as a reduced-form representation of underlying structural relationships.
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Nine Out of Ten Non-Elderly Californians Will Be Insured When the Affordable Care Act is Fully Implemented

Source: Ken Jacobs, Greg Watson, Gerald F. Kominski, Dylan H. Roby, Dave Graham-Squire, Christina M. Kinane, Daphna Gans, and Jack Needleman, UC Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, Research Brief, June 2012

From the summary:
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will significantly expand access to affordable health coverage in California starting in 2014. Californians with the lowest incomes will have access to coverage under the expansion of Medi-Cal, while millions of low- and middle-income families will be eligible for subsidies through the California Health Benefit Exchange (the Exchange). Demand for health insurance in the state will also increase as a result of the minimum coverage requirement.

The level of enrollment in the new and expanded programs and the resulting share of Californians who gain coverage under the ACA will depend on a range of factors, including the ease of enrollment and retention, outreach strategies, and language accessibility.

Based on the results of our CalSIM model, we estimate that in 2019, after the ACA is fully implemented:
– Between 89 and 92 percent of Californians under the age of 65 will have health coverage, compared to 84 percent without the law.
– Between 1.8 and 2.1 million Californians will enroll in subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange.
– Between 1.2 and 1.6 million individuals will be newly enrolled in Medi-Cal.
– Between 3 and just under 4 million Californians will remain uninsured, 1 million of whom will not be eligible for coverage due to immigration status.
See also:
Press release
Fact Sheets:
Predicted Exchange Enrollment with Subsidies under the Affordable Care Act: Regional and County Estimates
Predicted Increase in Medi-Cal Enrollment under the Affordable Care Act: Regional and County Estimates
Remaining Uninsured in California under the Affordable Care Act: Regional and County Estimates
Chart Pack:
Health Insurance Coverage in California under the Affordable Care Act: Revision of the March 22, 2012 Presentation to the California Health Benefit Exchange Board

Widespread Economic Growth Across States In 2011

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, BEA 12–22, June 5, 2012

Advance 2011 and Revised 1997–2010 GDP-by-State Statistics

Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased in 43 states and the District of Columbia in 2011, according to new statistics released today by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) that breakdown GDP by state. Durable-goods manufacturing, professional, scientific, and technical services, and information services were the leading contributors to real U.S. economic growth. U.S. real GDP by state grew 1.5 percent in 2011 after a 3.1 percent increase in 2010.
See also:
10 fastest-growing states
Source: Tami Luhby, CNN Money, June 6, 2012

Time Served: The High Cost, Low Return of Longer Prison Terms

Source: Adam Gelb, Ryan King, Felicity Rose, Jenifer Warren, Pew Center On The States, Public Safety Performance Project, June 2012

From the summary:
The length of time served in prison has increased markedly over the last two decades, according to a new study by Pew’s Public Safety Performance Project. Prisoners released in 2009 served an average of nine additional months in custody, or 36 percent longer, than offenders released in 1990.

Those extended prison sentences came at a price: prisoners released from incarceration in 2009 cost states $23,300 per offender–or a total of over $10 billion nationwide. More than half of that amount was for non-violent offenders.
See also:
State Fact Sheets: Time Served
Press Release
National Survey

Public vs. Private Sector Cuts: A State-by-State Breakdown

Source: Mike Maciag, Governing, June 4, 2012

Nearly all states coped with sizable private sector job losses during the recession along with now-sluggish growth. How these private sector cuts have carried over to the public sector, though, has varied greatly across the country.

While public payrolls generally downsized in recent years, a Governing analysis of Labor Department data finds state and local government reductions being applied unevenly so far, with employment growing or remaining roughly unchanged in about half of states since the start of the recession. Private sector employment, by contrast, increased in only five states

Interactive: Job Gains and Losses 2007-2012

Source: Carla Uriona, Mary Mahling, Ben Wieder,, May 23, 2012

Forty-three states and the District of Columbia added jobs in the past 12 months, but the U.S. has 4.8 million fewer jobs that it did in 2008. North Dakota led the pack with a 7.2 percent increase, but the national growth rate was only 1.1 percent. Seven states lost jobs.

Size and Characteristics of States' Union Workforces

Source: John Schmitt and Marie-Eve Augier, Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR), May 2012

From the summary:
Unionization rates – and the gender and racial composition of unionized workers – vary widely across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The figures and tables in this issue brief, based on our analysis of the Current Population Survey, give an overview of the size and basic demographics of the unionized workforce in each state. Throughout, we define a unionized worker as anyone who is a member of a union or represented by a collective bargaining agreement.

Trends in Employment-Based Coverage Among Workers, and Access to Coverage Among Uninsured Workers, 1995-2011

Source: Paul Fronstin, Employee Benefit Research Institute, EBRI Notes, Vol. 33, No. 5, May 2012

From the summary:
– Between December 2007-August 2009, the percentage of workers with employment-based coverage in their own name fell from 60.4 percent to 55.9 percent, recovering to 56.5 percent by December 2009. However, by April 2011, the percentage of workers with employment-based coverage had slipped back to 55.8 percent.
– Most uninsured workers reported that they did not have coverage because of cost: anywhere from 70 percent to 90 percent over the December 1995-July 2011 period.
– Uninsured workers reporting that they were not offered employment-based health benefits totaled roughly 40 percent from the mid-1990s through 2003, reaching 23 percent in mid-2011.

Sexual Victimization Reported by Former State Prisoners, 2008

Source: Allen J. Beck, Candace Johnson, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 237363, May 17, 2012

From the summary:
Presents data on sexual victimization experienced by former state prisoners during their prior term of incarceration, including any time served in a local jail, state prison, or postrelease community-correctional facility. This report is based on data from the first-ever National Former Prisoner Survey, conducted between January 2008 and October 2008. The report provides detailed information on the experiences of persons age 18 or older who were under active supervision following their release from custody. It provides data on the prevalence of sexual victimization while incarcerated, by the type of victimization and sex of former inmate. The report also examines individual-level and facility-level characteristics that may be correlated with sexual victimization and describes the circumstances surrounding victimization. It provides details on the post-release responses of victims to sexual victimization, HIV rates of victims, and information on current employment status, housing, and living arrangements.

Highlights include the following:
• An estimated 9.6% of former state prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization during the most recent period of incarceration in a jail, prison, and postrelease community-treatment facility.
• Among all former state prisoners, 1.8% reported experiencing one or more incidents while in a local jail, 7.5% while in a state prison, and 0.1% while in a postrelease community-treatment facility.
• About 5.4% of former state prisoners reported an incident that involved another inmate. An estimated 3.7% of former prisoners said they were forced or pressured to have nonconsensual sex with another inmate, including manual stimulation and oral, anal, or vaginal penetration.
• About 5.3% of former state prisoners reported an incident that involved facility staff. An estimated 1.2% of former prisoners reported that they unwillingly had sex or sexual contact with facility staff, and 4.6% reported that they “willingly” had sex or sexual contact with staff.
See also:
Press release
ASCII file