Category Archives: Statistics

Pay Equity in the States / An Analysis of the Gender-Pay Gap in the Public Sector

Source: Catherine C. Reese, Barbara Warner, Review of Public Personnel Administration, Vol. 22 no. 4, December 2012
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Has any gender-based pay adjustment made by the states in the past 25 years had an effect on women’s relative pay? The authors utilize a panel set of EEO-4 data on public sector employment by state to investigate the pay of women relative to men for 1999-2005. The authors find that there is a significant difference in the relative pay of women employed in states that have had a major pay adjustment in female-dominated job classes upward at any time in the past quarter century. Utilizing GLS multiple regression to predict the relative pay gaps by state, the authors find that women are better paid relative to men in the public sector than the private. The authors also find that women are better paid relative to men in Elazar’s traditionalistic states as opposed to individualistic and moralistic ones, which are usually credited with having more progressive public policies.

Individual Account Retirement Plans: An Analysis of the 2010 Survey of Consumer Finances

Source: Craig Copeland, Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI), Issue Brief 375, September 2012

From the summary:
The share of American families with a member in any employment-based retirement plan from a current employer increased steadily from 38.8 percent in 1992 to 40.6 percent in 2007, before declining in 2010 to 37.9 percent. Ownership of 401(k)-type plans among families participating in a retirement plan more than doubled from 31.6 percent in 1992 to 79.5 percent in 2007, and increased again in 2010 to 82.1 percent.

Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Analysis of the March 2012 Current Population Survey

Source: Paul Fronstin, Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI), Issue Brief 376, September 2012

The uninsured rate for working-age Americans ticked down in 2011, but only because public program coverage grew faster than employment-based health insurance coverage declined, according to a new report by EBRI. While employment-based health coverage is still the dominant source of health insurance in the United States, it has been steadily shrinking since 2000.

National Census Of Fatal Occupational Injuries In 2011 (Preliminary Results)

Source: U.S. department of Labor, Economic News Release, USDL-12-1888, September 20, 2012

A preliminary total of 4,609 fatal work injuries were recorded in the United States in 2011, down from a final count of 4,690 fatal work injuries in 2010, according to results from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The rate of fatal work injury for U.S. workers in 2011 was 3.5 per 100,000 full-time equivalent (FTE) workers, as compared to a final rate of 3.6 per 100,000 for 2010.

PHI State Data Center

Source: PHI (Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute), September 2012

From the blog post:
PHI has updated its State Data Center using the most recent wage, health insurance, and employment data available on the direct-care workforce in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The newly updated resource now features six revised charts for each state based on PHI’s analyses of the latest wage and employment data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 2011 and U.S. Census Bureau health insurance and public-assistance data for 2010.

The effect of pension accounting rules on public-private pay comparisons

Source: Andrew G. Biggs, Jason Richwine, ABA Journal of Labor and Employment Law, Volume 27, Number 2, Winter 2012
(scroll down)

From the summary:
….Because of the well-known tendency for public employers to be more generous with benefits than with wages, any analysis that attempts to settle the “overpaid” or “underpaid” question must include all forms of compensation in the comparison. However, this article is not an all-inclusive analysis. Instead, our goal is to correct a significant error in many existing public-private comparisons. Simply put, it is incorrect to assume that the amount that state and local governments set aside for pension financing is equivalent to the “pension compensation” that public employees receive. In fact, because of accounting differences between the public and private sectors, public defined benefit pension plans contribute far less for each dollar of future pension benefits than private plans do, potentially skewing comparisons of overall compensation….

U.S. Employer Benchmarks and Trends

Source: Truven Health Analytics, July 2012
(registration required)

From the summary:
With key provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) now in effect for more than a year, we’ve assembled a compendium of data tracking the impacts of reform and other industry trends on employer healthcare costs.

The report, U.S. Employer Benchmarks and Trends, found that medical and pharmacy costs for employees and their dependents increased at a rate of 4.6 percent from 2010 to 2011 — the smallest increase in the last 5 years.
The relatively modest cost increase reflects the impact of PPACA and Mental Health Parity regulations effective in 2011, including:
• Extension of Dependent Coverage: The extension of dependent coverage through age 26 for unmarried children accounted for 1.4 percent of the overall 4.6 percent increase in employer healthcare costs.
• Preventive Services Coverage: The PPACA requirement to cover more preventive services has resulted in a 3.8 percent increase in physician’s office visits for preventive care.
• Mental Health Parity Regulations: Roughly 0.4 percent of the 4.6 percent healthcare cost increase was driven by an increase of 13.7 percent in Mental Health and Substance Abuse services.

1.3 Million Fewer People Were Uninsured in 2011: Young Adults Continue to Make Gains in Coverage as a Result of the Affordable Care Act

Source: Sara R. Collins, Karen Davis, and Tracy Garber, Commonwealth Fund blog, September 12, 2012

New data released by the U.S. Census Bureau today show that the number of people without health insurance declined by 1.3 million in 2011, falling to 48.6 million people. (Exhibit 1). This is excellent news–the number of uninsured has increased by 12 million people over the past decade, and the latest numbers suggest an important turning point in this upward trend. The decline in uninsured Americans in 2011 was the largest one-year drop in the past decade.

Young adults made strong gains in coverage, continuing a trend that began in 2010 with the passage of the Affordable Care Act. The percentage of uninsured young adults ages 19 to 25 without health insurance declined by 2.2 percentage points in 2011, to 27.7 percent, down from 29.8 percent in 2010 and 31.4 percent in 2009 (Exhibit 2).

Voter Turnout

Source: Michael McDonald, George Mason University, United States Election Project, 2012

Voter turnout rates presented here show that the much-lamented decline in voter participation is an artifact of poor measurement. Previously, turnout rates were calculated by dividing the number of votes by what is called the “voting-age population” which consists of everyone age 18 and older residing in the United States (the yellow line to the right). This includes persons ineligible to vote, mainly non-citizens and ineligible felons, and excludes overseas eligible voters. When turnout rates are calculated for those eligible to vote, a new picture of turnout emerges, which exhibits no decline since 1972 (the green line to the right). Indeed, turnout rates appear to have been restored to their earlier high levels as of 2008
Topics covered include: Turnout Data. Early Voting, Elections Blog, Related Publications, and Frequently Asked Questions.

Employer Health Benefits 2012 Annual Survey

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research & Educational Trust (HRET), September 2012

From the press release:
Annual premiums for employer-sponsored family health coverage reached $15,745 this year, up 4 percent from last year, with workers on average paying $4,316 toward the cost of their coverage, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research & Educational Trust (HRET) 2012 Employer Health Benefits Survey released [9/11/2012]. This year’s premium increase is moderate by historical standards, but outpaced the growth in workers’ wages (1.7 percent) and general inflation (2.3 percent). Since 2002, premiums have increased 97 percent, three times as fast as wages (33 percent) and inflation (28 percent).
See also:
List of Exhibits
Summary of Findings
2012 Supplementary Survey
Chart Pack
Technical Supplement: Standard Error Tables for Selected Estimates

Health Benefits in 2012: Moderate Premium Increases For Employer-Sponsored Plans; Young Adults Gained Coverage Under ACA
Source: Gary Claxton, Matthew Rae, Nirmita Panchal, Anthony Damico, Heidi Whitmore,
Kevin Kenward and Awo Osei-Anto, Health Affairs, Web First, September 2012
(subscription required)

Family Health Premiums Rise 4 Percent To Average $15,745 In 2012
Source: Chris Fleming, Health Affairs Blog, September 11, 2012

Reflections on This Year’s Four Percent Premium Increase
Source: Drew Altman, Kaiser Family Foundation, September 2012