Category Archives: Statistics

The Effects of a Minimum-Wage Increase on Employment and Family Income

Source: Congressional Budget Office, Pub. No. 4856, February 2014

From the blog post:
Increasing the minimum wage would have two principal effects on low-wage workers. Most of them would receive higher pay that would increase their family’s income, and some of those families would see their income rise above the federal poverty threshold. But some jobs for low-wage workers would probably be eliminated, the income of most workers who became jobless would fall substantially, and the share of low-wage workers who were employed would probably fall slightly. ….

Global Pensions Asset Study 2014

Source: Towers Watson, January 2014

From the abstract:
This is a study of the 13 largest pension markets in the world and accounts for more than 85% of global pension assets. The countries included are Australia, Canada, Brazil, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, South Africa, Switzerland, the UK and the US. The study also analyses seven countries in greater depth by excluding the six smallest markets (Brazil, France, Germany, Ireland, Hong Kong and South Africa).

The analysis includes:
• Asset size, including growth statistics, comparison of asset size with GDP and liabilities
• Asset allocation
• Defined benefit and defined contribution share of pension assets
• Public and private sector share of pension assets.

Multinational Comparisons of Health Systems Data, 2013

Source: David Squires, Commonwealth Fund, November 2013

From the overview:
International comparisons of health care systems offer valuable tools to health ministers, policymakers, and academics wishing to evaluate the performance of their country’s system. In this chartbook, we use data collected by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to compare health care systems and performance on a range of topics, including spending, hospitals, physicians, pharmaceuticals, prevention, mortality, quality and safety, and prices. We present data across several industrialized countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Whenever possible, we also present the median value of all 34 members of the OECD.

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an international organization representing 34 industrialized countries that share a commitment to democracy and a market economy. The OECD produces reports and data on a wide range of economic and social issues, including the OECD Health Data series, an annual release of data on various aspects of health and health care in the member countries. Working with statistical offices in each member country, the OECD produces the most accurate and comprehensive international health care data available on the 34 nations. …
See also:
Chartbook (567K PPTX)

Union Advantage for Black Workers

Source: Janelle Jones and John Schmitt, the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR), February 2014

From the press release:
For over 50 years, black workers in the United States have found union representation to be a source of higher quality jobs than would otherwise be available. These jobs played an important role in creating a path to the middle class for many African Americans and their families. A new report from the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR), demonstrates that despite a long decline in unionization rates in the United States, unions continue to boost the wages and benefits of black workers. ….

… Among the highlights of the “Union Advantage for Black Workers” report:
– Unionized African-American workers earn, on average, 15.6 percent more than their non-union counterparts.
– Almost three-fourths of unionized black workers had health insurance through their employer or union, compared to less than half of non-unionized black workers.
– Almost twice as many black workers had an employer-sponsored retirement plan as black workers who were not in a union.
– While unionization boosted the wages and benefits of black workers at all levels of educational attainment, the benefits of union representation were largest for less-educated workers.
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FACTS 5: Home care aides at a glance

Source: Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute (PHI), February 2014

From the abstract:
Presents statistics on the home care workforce, including information on wages, hours worked, demographic information, and workforce projections. The personal care aide and home health aide workforces are projected to grow by nearly 50 percent by 2022, making those two occupations the second and third fastest-growing in the country.

Food Insecurity and SNAP (Food Stamps) Participation in LGBT Communities

Source: Gary J. Gates, Williams Institute, February 2014

From the press release:
2.4 million (29%) LGBT adults experienced a time in the last year when they did not have enough money to feed themselves or their family, according to a new Williams Institute study authored by demographer Gary J. Gates. LGBT people experience disproportionate levels of food insecurity and higher participation rates in the SNAP program, especially those raising children, a risk that persists despite possible differences in demographic characteristics between LGBT and non-LGBT individuals like gender, age, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment. For example, data suggest that same-sex couples raising children are approximately twice as likely to receive food stamps as different-sex couples with children….

…According to the US Department of Agriculture, approximately 49 million Americans (nearly 16%) were food insecure in 2012. Food insecurity is generally defined as having limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal program designed to alleviate food insecurity. More than 47 million Americans (nearly one in five adults) participate in SNAP, which provides food purchase assistance to low and no-income individuals.

Notably, bisexuals along with LGBT women and people of color are particularly vulnerable to high rates of food insecurity and SNAP participation. One in four bisexuals (25 percent) receive food stamps; 34 percent of LGBT women were food insecure in the last year; and LGBT African Americans, Native Americans, and Native Hawaiians experienced food insecurity in the last year at rates of 37 percent, 55 percent, and 78 percent respectively….

National and State Population Estimates with Components of Change: July 1, 2013

Source: United States Census Bureau, January 2014

The Census Bureau’s Population Estimates Program (PEP) produces estimates of the population for the United States, its states, counties, cities, and towns, as well as for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and its municipios. Demographic components of population change (births, deaths, and migration) are produced at the national, state, and county levels of geography. Additionally, housing unit estimates are produced for the nation, states, and counties.

These estimates are used in federal funding allocations, as survey controls, as denominators for vital rates and per capita time series, and as indicators of recent demographic changes. With each new release of annual estimates, the entire time series of estimates is revised for all years back to the last census. All previously published estimates are superseded and archived.

From the press release:
Population estimates will be available on American FactFinder for the nation, states and Puerto Rico. The estimates will include annual components of change (births, deaths and migration) as well as monthly national estimates since the 2010 Census.
2013 National Total Population Estimates
2013 State Total Population Estimates
2013 Puerto Rico Commonwealth Total Population Estimates

Information Fuels Support for School Reform: Facts about local district performance alter public thinking

Source: Michael B. Henderson, William G. Howell, and Paul E. Peterson, Education Next, Vol. 14 no. 2, Spring 2014

From the press release:
Analysis of new survey data show that public perception on K-12 education is strongly influenced by the amount of information at hand. In fact, when made aware of their local district’s national ranking, the share assigning an “A” or “B” grade to the local schools falls by 11 percentage points. At the same time, opposition to teacher tenure increases by 8 percentage points, support for charter schools increases by 7 percentage points, and support for making school vouchers available to all families shoots upward by 13 percentage points.

The findings come from the latest survey of a nationally representative sample of the American public conducted under the auspices of Education Next by Professors Michael B. Henderson (University of Mississippi), William G. Howell (University of Chicago), and Paul E. Peterson (Harvard Kennedy School). The researchers told one randomly chosen group of respondents the national ranking of their local school district, while providing no such information to another randomly chosen group.

The shift in opinion occurs because people are shocked when they learn how poorly their own district ranks nationally, the authors say. …

Key survey findings include the following:
• Nearly two-thirds (64%) of Americans support common core standards, while only 13% oppose them. Those levels do not change significantly when respondents are told the national ranking of their local district.
• When respondents learn how their local schools rank nationally…
* the percentage of those giving the schools an “A” or a “B” on the traditional A to F grading scale drops 11 percentage points, from 49% to 38%;
* support for a proposal to make vouchers available to all families regardless of income jumps 13 percentage points, increasing from 43% to 56%, while opposition to the proposal declines from 37% to 25%;
* support for charter schools shifts upward from 51% to 58% when respondents learn the national rank of the local district, while opposition to charters declines from 26% to 23%;
* opposition to teacher tenure climbs 8 percentage points, from 47% to 55%, while support for tenure drops 8 points to 25%.
• When not informed about current teacher salary levels within their state, 55 percent of Americans favor a salary increase for teachers, and when respondents are told the national ranking of their local schools, that percentage rises slightly to 58%.
• However, when Americans are given information about current teacher salaries, support for higher salaries for teachers falls from 58% to 34%, an extraordinary decline of 24 percentage points.

Prisoners in 2012: Trends in Admissions and Releases

Source: E. Ann Carson, Daniela Golinelli, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 243920, December 19, 2013

From the abstract:
Presents final counts on prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional authorities on December 31, 2012, collected in the National Prisoner Statistics Program. The report expands on the statistics presented in the advance report in July 2013. It includes tables on the number of noncitizen inmates, inmates under age 18 in the custody of state or federal prisons, and prison capacity for each state and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. It also focuses on trends in prison admissions and releases from 1991 to 2011 and the offense and demographic characteristics of yearend prison populations. The report examines data from California state prisons between 2010 and 2012, one year prior and during the implementation of the state’s Public Safety Realignment policy.

– In 2012, the number of admissions to state and federal prison in the United States was 609,800 offenders, the lowest number since 1999. „„
– The number of releases from U.S. prisons in 2012 (637,400) exceeded that of admissions for the fourth consecutive year, contributing to the decline in the total U.S. prison population. „„
– In 2011, the majority of state prisoners in 2011 (53%) were serving time for violent offenses. „„
– New court commitments made up 82% of state admissions in 1978, 57% in 2000, and 71% in 2012. „„
– New court commitments to state prisons for drug offenders decreased 22% between 2006 and 2011, while parole violation admissions decreased 31%. „„
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