Category Archives: Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 2014

Source: Lauren Glaze, Danielle Kaeble, Todd Minton, Anastasios Tsoutis, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 249513, December 29, 2015

From the abstract:
Presents statistics on persons supervised by adult correctional systems in the United States at yearend 2014, including offenders supervised in the community on probation or parole and those incarcerated in state or federal prison or local jail. The report describes the size and change in the total correctional population during 2014. It details the downward trend in the correctional population and correctional supervision rate since 2007. It also examines the impact of changes in the community supervision and incarcerated populations on the total correctional population in recent years. Findings cover the variation in the size and composition of the total correctional population by jurisdiction at yearend 2014. Appendix tables provide statistics on other correctional populations and jurisdiction-level estimates of the total correctional population by correctional status and sex for select years.

Highlights:
– Adult correctional systems supervised an estimated 6,851,000 persons at yearend 2014, about 52,200 fewer offenders than at yearend 2013.
– About 1 in 36 adults (or 2.8% of adults in the United States) was under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2014, the lowest rate since 1996.
– The correctional population has declined by an annual average of 1.0% since 2007.
– The community supervision population (down 1.0%) continued to decline during 2014, accounting for all of the decrease in the correctional population.
– The incarcerated population (up 1,900) slightly increased during 2014.
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The quest for meaningful and accurate occupational health and safety statistics

Source: Dino Drudi, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, December 2015

From the abstract:
To help mark the Monthly Labor Review’s centennial, the Review invited several producers and users of BLS data to take a look back at the last 100 years. This installment of the anniversary series comes from the Bureau’s Occupational Safety and Health Statistics (OSHS) program. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics collects and publishes data on occupational injuries and illnesses. The OSHS program administers these efforts and has evolved for the purpose of collecting more accurate and complete data. Over time, this evolution has required a variety of changes, including new classification systems, recordkeeping procedures, injury and illness categorization, data collection methods, and coding schemes.
For much of its 130 year history, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Employment and Wages in Healthcare Occupations

Source: Stella Fayer and Audrey Watson, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Spotlight on Statistics, December 2015

Whether you are filling a prescription, trying to find relief for a toothache, or looking for advice on proper nutrition, you probably will turn to a healthcare professional. Healthcare occupations represent a significant percentage of U.S. employment and are essential to the country’s economic health. Some of the largest and highest paying occupations are in healthcare fields. This Spotlight on Statistics uses May 2014 Occupational Employment Statistics data to examine employment and wages for healthcare occupations.

People who are not in the labor force: why aren’t they working?

Source: Steven F. Hipple, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Beyond the Numbers, Employment & Unemployment, vol. 4, no. 15, December 2015

…This Beyond the Numbers article examines data on those who were not in the labor force during 2004 and 2014 and the reasons they gave for not working. The data are limited to people who neither worked nor looked for work during the previous year….

U.S. State and Local Public Pension Funds in Numbers

Source: Joshua Franzel, Center for State and Local Government Excellence, December 3, 2015

SLGE’s VP for Research Joshua Franzel spoke at the 5th Annual World Pensions & Investment Forum in Paris, France on December 3. His presentation focused on state and local public pension structures, funding, and the Public Plans Data resource.

In Our Own Backyard: Confronting Growth and Disparities in American Jails

Source: Ram Subramanian, Christian Henrichson, Jacob Kang-Brown, Vera Institute of Justice, December 2015

From the summary:
Although jails are the “front door” to mass incarceration, there is not enough data for justice system stakeholders and others to understand how their jail is being used and how it compares with others.

To address this issue, Vera researchers developed a data tool that includes the jail population and jail incarceration rate for every U.S. county that uses a local jail. Researchers merged jail data from two federal data collections—the Bureau of Justice Statistics Annual Survey of Jails and Census of Jails—and incorporated demographic data from the U.S. Census.

The data revealed that, since 1970, the number of people held in jail has increased from 157,000 to 690,000 in 2014—a more than four-fold increase nationwide, with growth rates highest in the smallest counties. This data also reveals wide variation in incarceration rates and racial disparities among jurisdictions of similar size and thus underlines an essential point: The number of people in jail is largely the result of choices made by policymakers and others in the justice system. The Incarceration Trends tool provides any jurisdiction with the appetite for change the opportunity to better understand its history of jail use and measure its progress toward decarceration.
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Employment Projections: 2014-24

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News Release, USDL-15-2327, December 8, 2015

From the summary:
Healthcare occupations and industries are expected to have the fastest employment growth and to add the most jobs between 2014 and 2024, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. With the increase in the proportion of the population in older age groups, more people in the labor force will be entering prime retirement age. As a result, the labor force participation rate is projected to decrease and labor force growth to slow. This slowdown of labor force growth is expected, in turn, to lead to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of 2.2 percent annually over the decade. This economic growth is projected to generate 9.8 million new jobs–a 6.5-percent increase between 2014 and 2024. The projections are predicated on assumptions including a 5.2 percent unemployment rate in 2024 and labor productivity growth of 1.8 percent annually over the projected period. Highlights of the BLS projections for the labor force and macroeconomy, industry employment, and occupational employment are included below.
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Employment projections by occupational group 2014–24
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, December 30, 2015

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation – September 2015

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News Release, USDL-15-2329, December 9, 2015

Employer costs for employee compensation for civilian workers averaged $33.37 per hour worked in September 2015, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Wages and salaries averaged $22.88 per hour worked and accounted for 68.6 percent of these costs, while benefits averaged $10.48 and accounted for the remaining 31.4 percent. Total employer compensation costs for private industry workers averaged $31.53 per hour worked in September 2015. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC), a product of the National Compensation Survey, measures employer costs for wages and salaries, and employee benefits for nonfarm private and state and local government workers.

Compensation costs in state and local government

State and local government employers spent an average of $44.66 per hour worked for employee compensation in September 2015. Wages and salaries averaged $28.45 per hour and accounted for 63.7 percent of compensation costs, while benefits averaged $16.21 per hour worked and accounted for the remaining 36.3 percent. Total compensation costs for management, professional, and related workers averaged $54.02 per hour worked. This major occupational group includes teachers, averaging $60.92 per hour worked. Total compensation for sales and office workers averaged $30.83 per hour worked and service workers averaged $34.02. (See chart 1 and table 4.)

For state and local government employees, employer costs for insurance benefits averaged $5.34 per hour, or 12.0 percent of total compensation. The largest component of insurance costs in September 2015 was health insurance, which averaged $5.20, or 11.6 percent of total compensation. (See chart 2 and table 3.)

In September 2015, the average cost for retirement and savings benefits was $4.63 per hour worked in state and local government, or 10.4 percent of total compensation. Included in this amount were employer costs for defined benefit plans, which averaged $4.26 per hour (9.5 percent of total compensation), and defined contribution plans, which averaged 37 cents (0.8 percent). (See chart 2 and table 3.) Defined benefit plans specify a formula for determining future benefits, while defined contribution plans specify employer contributions but do not guarantee the amount of future benefits. Two components of benefit costs are paid leave and legally required benefits. Paid leave benefit costs include vacation, holiday, sick leave, and personal leave. The average cost for paid leave was $3.24 per hour worked for state and local government employees. Costs for legally required benefits, including Social Security, Medicare, unemployment insurance (both state and federal), and workers’ compensation, averaged $2.63 per hour worked. (See table 3.)….

Elderly Poverty in the United States in the 21st Century: Exploring the Role of Assets in the Supplemental Poverty Measure

Source: Christopher Wimer and Lucas Manfield, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College (CRR), Working Paper, WP#2015-29, November 2015

From the abstract:
Official estimates of elderly poverty do not take into account either the medical needs of the elderly, which can be quite extensive, or the assets at their disposal, which may also be extensive. The new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) explicitly takes into account medical needs but has been criticized for not concomitantly taking into account asset portfolios. In this paper we consider both jointly, using an approach adapted from a recent National Academy of Sciences report recommending methods for measuring poverty and medical risk while taking account of assets. We use longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).
The paper found that:
• Confirming previously published research, the elderly have considerably higher poverty rates under the SPM than under the official measure, and this disparity is driven by the SPM’s treatment of medical out-of-pocket expenditures.
• SPM poverty rates are considerably lower than actual SPM rates when an annuitized portion of liquid assets is incorporated into the measure of resources.
• When both liquid and near-liquid assets are considered, trends and levels of SPM poverty rates are extremely close to official poverty rates.
• SPM poverty rates would be even lower than official rates if all assets, including reverse mortgages on homes, were considered, though this might be considered a less “reasonable” approach by some observers.
• Incorporating assets has differing effects on pre-existing disparities in poverty rates: it exacerbates inequalities by race and marital status but reduces inequalities by age and has little effect on inequalities by gender.

The policy implications of the findings are:
• Government agencies should consider examining the role of assets when assessing the trends and levels of poverty rates among older Americans.
• Promoting savings and asset ownership among younger Americans is likely to pay substantial dividends with respect to the economic well-being of older Americans in the future.

The Occupational Outlook Handbook 2016-17

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 2015

From the summary:
The 2016–17 Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH) was released today by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The OOH reflects BLS employment projections for the 2014–24 decade. The OOH is one of the nation’s most widely used sources of career information. It provides details on hundreds of occupations and is used by career counselors, students, parents, teachers, jobseekers, career changers, education and training officials, and researchers.

The 2016–17 OOH includes 329 occupational profiles covering 576 detailed occupations, or about 83 percent of total employment in 2014. Each occupational profile describes: what workers do, where they work, typical education and training requirements, wages, job outlook, state and area data, and contacts for more information.

New in the 2016–17 OOH:
Each occupational profile in the 2016-17 OOH includes a new State and Area Data tab with links to occupational profiles from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey. Users can access detailed national, state, and metropolitan or nonmetropolitan employment and wage data for their selected occupation….