Category Archives: Statistics

A Guide to Statistics on Historical Trends in Income Inequality

Source: Chad Stone, Danilo Trisi, Arloc Sherman, and Brandon DeBot, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Updated: October 26, 2015

From the summary:
….Data from a variety of sources contribute to this broad picture of strong growth and shared prosperity for the early postwar period, followed by slower growth and growing inequality since the 1970s. Within these broad trends, however, different data tell slightly different parts of the story (and no single source of data is better for all purposes than the others).

This guide consists of four sections. The first describes the commonly used sources and statistics on income and discusses their relative strengths and limitations in understanding trends in income and inequality. The second provides an overview of the trends revealed in those key data sources. The third and fourth sections supply additional information on wealth, which complements the income data as a measure of how the most well-off Americans are doing, and poverty, which measures how the least well-off Americans are doing…..

Using Linked Survey and Administrative Data to Better Measure Income: Implications for Poverty, Program Effectiveness and Holes in the Safety Net

Source: Bruce D. Meyer, Nikolas Mittag, NBER Working Paper No. 21676, October 2015
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
We examine the consequences of underreporting of transfer programs for prototypical analyses of low-income populations using the Current Population Survey (CPS), the source of official poverty and inequality statistics. We link administrative data for food stamps, TANF, General Assistance, and subsidized housing from New York State to the CPS at the individual level. Program receipt in the CPS is missed for over one-third of housing assistance recipients, 40 percent of food stamp recipients and 60 percent of TANF and General Assistance recipients. Dollars of benefits are also undercounted for reporting recipients, particularly for TANF, General Assistance and housing assistance. We find that the survey data sharply understate the income of poor households. Underreporting in the survey data also greatly understates the effects of anti-poverty programs and changes our understanding of program targeting. Using the combined data rather than survey data alone, the poverty reducing effect of all programs together is nearly doubled while the effect of housing assistance is tripled. We also re-examine the coverage of the safety net, specifically the share of people without work or program receipt. Using the administrative measures of program receipt rather than the survey ones often reduces the share of single mothers falling through the safety net by one-half or more.

Trends in collective bargaining coverage: stability, erosion or decline?

Source: Jelle Visser, Susan Hayter & Rosina Gammarano, International Labour Organization (ILO), Labour Relations and Collective Bargaining Issue Brief no. 1, 29 September 2015

From the press release:
New research from the ILO quantifies changes to the coverage of global collective bargaining after 2008. While some countries have experienced increased coverage, most have seen declines…. Figures from a new ILO database on industrial relations show that collective bargaining has come under pressure in many countries since the start of the global financial crisis in 2008. The new IRData tool includes indicators on trade union density and collective bargaining coverage in 75 countries. It was launched together with a brief highlighting the major trends on collective bargaining. According to the brief, collective bargaining coverage varies significantly between countries, from just about 1 or 2 per cent in Ethiopia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Peru to nearly 100 per cent in France, Belgium, Austria and Uruguay….

Substance Use Disorders and the Role of the States

Source: Pew Charitable Trusts and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, March 2015

From the summary:
Millions of Americans have substance use disorders, yet experts estimate that the vast majority of those in need of treatment do not receive any care. These disorders often result in not only serious harm to the health of the individuals, but also enormous financial and social consequences that go beyond the health care system—including the loss of economic productivity due to withdrawal from the workforce and increased rates of crime, disability, and death. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the combined direct and indirect costs of substance use disorder reaches into the hundreds of billions of dollars annually. …

…..Key Findings
• 21.6 million Americans aged 12 and older had a substance use disorder in 2013
• 18% of Americans with a substance use disorder received treatment in 2013
• 69% of spending on substance use disorder treatments was by public sources in 2009
• $9.4 billion is what states and localities spent on substance use disorder treatments in 2009 ….

School Enrollment in the United States: 2014

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, October 2015

From the press release:
These tables provide information by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, family income, type of college, employment status, nativity, foreign-born parentage, attendance status (full or part time), type of school (public or private), and vocational course enrollment. They also delve into topics such as nursery school and kindergarten enrollment, the likelihood of being enrolled in a grade appropriate for their age and the percentage of young adults enrolled in college. Historical tables are also provided.

Hispanics and Latinos in industries and occupations

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, The Economics Daily, October 9, 2015

Since 1968 Americans have recognized September 15 to October 15 as Hispanic Heritage Month. Each year, we celebrate the history and culture of Hispanic and Latino Americans and their contributions to society. In 2014, Hispanics and Latinos accounted for 16.1 percent of the 146.3 million employed people in the United States.

Among major industries, 27.3 percent of workers in construction were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity in 2014. Other industries with high concentrations of Hispanics and Latinos include agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting (23.1 percent) and leisure and hospitality (22.3 percent). Hispanics had the lowest share of employment in public administration (11.4 percent), financial activities (11.3 percent), and information (10.5 percent).

Health Care Spending: Historical Trends and New Directions

Source: Alice Chen, Dana P. Goldman, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), NBER Working Paper No. w21501, August 2015

From the abstract:
Over the last five decades, broad changes in the US health care system have dramatically influenced growth in health care expenditures. These structural changes have also influenced the trajectory of the health economics research. This paper reviews some of the seminal health economics papers (measured by citations) and identifies the salient factors driving the growth of medical expenditures. We find that the research identified – and was strongly influenced by – four eras of expenditure growth: (1) coverage expansion; (2) experimentation with financial incentives; (3) the managed care backlash; and (4) a golden era of declining expenditure growth. We conclude by discussing some themes from this research suggesting optimism that, going forward, we can curb excess expenditure growth above GDP growth without harming population health.

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB), October 2015

From the summary:
The Department of Labor’s annual Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor focuses on the efforts of certain U.S. trade beneficiary countries and territories to eliminate the worst forms of child labor through legislation, enforcement mechanisms, policies and social programs.
The Report presents:
• Findings on the prevalence and sectoral distribution of the worst forms of child labor in each country.
• Country-specific suggestions for government action (since 2009).
• Individual country assessments that identify where Significant, Moderate, Minimal, or No Advancement has been made (since 2011).

The Report serves as a resource to foreign governments, NGOs, academics and policymakers working on labor and human rights issues. It helps inform Congress and Executive Branch agencies that formulate labor and trade policy and is an important resource for the Department in assessing future technical assistance and research priorities as it seeks to combat child labor around the world.

The Department’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) has published the Findings each year since 2002, as mandated by the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (TDA). The TDA requires that countries fulfill commitments to eliminate the worst forms of child labor to be eligible for certain U.S. trade preference programs. It also requires the U.S. Secretary of Labor to issue annual findings on beneficiary country initiatives to implement these commitments.

Sweat & Toil: Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking Around the World
By U.S. Department of Labor

Sweat & Toil: Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking Around the World is a comprehensive resource developed by the U.S. Department of Labor (USDOL) documenting child labor and forced labor worldwide. Data and research in this app are taken from USDOL’s three flagship reports: Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor; List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor; and List of Products Produced by Forced or Indentured Child Labor. This app fits these three information-packed reports the size of a phone book in the palm of your hand. With this app you can:
• Check countries’ efforts to eliminate child labor
• Find child labor data
• Browse goods produced with child labor or forced labor
• Review laws and ratifications
• See what governments can to do end child labor

Using this app can be a starting point to empower yourself with knowledge about child labor or forced labor around the world. Anyone with an interest in these issues – governments, businesses, academics, civil society, consumers – can use it as a source of information to begin asking questions, taking action, and demanding change.

U.S. State-Level Income Inequality Data

Source: Mark W. Frank – Professor of Economics and International Business, Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University

My current research offers a comprehensive panel of annual state-level income inequality measures that I have constructed from individual tax filing data available from the Internal Revenue Service. ….

Evolution of the Top 1% Income Share

Evolution of the Top 10% Income Share

40.4 million people provided eldercare in 2013–14

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, TED: The Economics Daily, September 28, 2015

Sixteen percent (40.4 million) of the civilian noninstitutional population age 15 and older provided unpaid eldercare over the 2013–14 period. Eldercare providers are defined as people who provide unpaid care to someone age 65 or older who needs help because of a condition related to aging. People ages 45 to 64 were the most likely to provide eldercare (23 percent), followed by those age 65 and older (17 percent).