Category Archives: Statistics

Little Change Seen In Part-Time Employment As A Result Of The Affordable Care Act

Source: Asako S. Moriya, Thomas M. Selden and Kosali I. Simon, Health Affairs, Vol. 35 no. 1, January 2016
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From the abstract:
There has been speculation that the Affordable Care Act’s coverage provisions and employer mandate have led to an increase in part-time employment. Using the Current Population Survey for the period 2005–15, we examined data on weekly hours worked by firm size, reason for working part time, age, education, and health insurance. We found only limited evidence to support this speculation.

Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2015

Source: Peter Wagner and Bernadette Rabuy, Prison Policy Initiative, December 8, 2015

Wait, does the United States have 1.4 million or more than 2 million people in prison? And do the 636,000 people released every year include the people getting out of local jails? Frustrating questions like these abound because our systems of federal, state, local, and other types of confinement — and the data collectors that keep track of them — are so fragmented. There is a lot of interesting and valuable research out there, but varying definitions and other incompatibilities make it hard — for both people new to criminal justice and for experienced policy wonks — to get the big picture.

This report offers some much needed clarity by piecing together this country’s disparate systems of confinement. The American criminal justice system holds more than 2.3 million people in 1,719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 2,259 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,283 local jails, and 79 Indian Country jails as well as in military prisons, immigration detention facilities, civil commitment centers, and prisons in the U.S. territories. And we go deeper to provide further detail on why people in the various systems of confinement are locked up.

How many people are locked up in the United States?

Related:
Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie
Source: Peter Wagner and Leah Sakala, Prison Policy Initiative, March 12, 2014

Wait, does the United States have 1.4 million or more than 2 million people in prison? And do the 688,000 people released every year include those getting out of local jails? Frustrating questions like these abound because our systems of federal, state, local, and other types of confinement — and the data collectors that keep track of them — are so fragmented. There is a lot of interesting and valuable research out there, but definitional issues and incompatibilities make it hard to get the big picture for both people new to criminal justice and for experienced policy wonks.

On the other hand, piecing together the available information offers some clarity. This briefing presents the first graphic we’re aware of that aggregates the disparate systems of confinement in this country, which hold more than 2.4 million people in 1,719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 2,259 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,283 local jails, and 79 Indian Country jails as well as in military prisons, immigration detention facilities, civil commitment centers, and prisons in the U.S. territories….

How many people are locked up in the United States?

Immigrant Employment by State and Industry

Source: Pew Charitable Trusts, Immigration and the States Project, December 21, 2015

The employment patterns of immigrants differ from those of U.S.-born workers across industries and states. This interactive captures the variation by measuring the employment distribution ratio, which compares the likelihood that an immigrant worker is employed in each of 13 industries with that of an U.S.-born worker in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. In Arizona, for instance, the employment distribution ratio for the administrative services industry is 2.0, meaning that immigrants are twice as likely as U.S.-born individuals to hold a job in this sector.

The interactive tool can also be used to compare the state data with national figures to produce a benchmark. For example, 6 percent of all immigrant workers nationwide hold a job in administrative services, compared with 4 percent of U.S.-born workers, resulting in an employment distribution ratio of 1.7. This means that immigrants are 1.7 times more likely to work in the sector. For additional context, the tool includes each industry’s contribution to a state’s total employment and gross domestic product.
Understanding how workers are distributed across a state’s economy can help inform policymakers’ decisions regarding immigration and employment policies — such as whether to provide workers with skills-based training, set standards for occupational credentials, provide language classes for non-native English speakers, or mandate the use of the federal online employment eligibility verification system E‑Verify — choices that can affect immigrant workers and the industries that employ them. The analysis that is a companion to this interactive provides some additional insight into these findings and their policy implications.

Correctional Populations in the United States, 2014

Source: Lauren Glaze, Danielle Kaeble, Todd Minton, Anastasios Tsoutis, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 249513, December 29, 2015

From the abstract:
Presents statistics on persons supervised by adult correctional systems in the United States at yearend 2014, including offenders supervised in the community on probation or parole and those incarcerated in state or federal prison or local jail. The report describes the size and change in the total correctional population during 2014. It details the downward trend in the correctional population and correctional supervision rate since 2007. It also examines the impact of changes in the community supervision and incarcerated populations on the total correctional population in recent years. Findings cover the variation in the size and composition of the total correctional population by jurisdiction at yearend 2014. Appendix tables provide statistics on other correctional populations and jurisdiction-level estimates of the total correctional population by correctional status and sex for select years.

Highlights:
– Adult correctional systems supervised an estimated 6,851,000 persons at yearend 2014, about 52,200 fewer offenders than at yearend 2013.
– About 1 in 36 adults (or 2.8% of adults in the United States) was under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2014, the lowest rate since 1996.
– The correctional population has declined by an annual average of 1.0% since 2007.
– The community supervision population (down 1.0%) continued to decline during 2014, accounting for all of the decrease in the correctional population.
– The incarcerated population (up 1,900) slightly increased during 2014.
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The quest for meaningful and accurate occupational health and safety statistics

Source: Dino Drudi, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, December 2015

From the abstract:
To help mark the Monthly Labor Review’s centennial, the Review invited several producers and users of BLS data to take a look back at the last 100 years. This installment of the anniversary series comes from the Bureau’s Occupational Safety and Health Statistics (OSHS) program. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics collects and publishes data on occupational injuries and illnesses. The OSHS program administers these efforts and has evolved for the purpose of collecting more accurate and complete data. Over time, this evolution has required a variety of changes, including new classification systems, recordkeeping procedures, injury and illness categorization, data collection methods, and coding schemes.
For much of its 130 year history, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Employment and Wages in Healthcare Occupations

Source: Stella Fayer and Audrey Watson, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Spotlight on Statistics, December 2015

Whether you are filling a prescription, trying to find relief for a toothache, or looking for advice on proper nutrition, you probably will turn to a healthcare professional. Healthcare occupations represent a significant percentage of U.S. employment and are essential to the country’s economic health. Some of the largest and highest paying occupations are in healthcare fields. This Spotlight on Statistics uses May 2014 Occupational Employment Statistics data to examine employment and wages for healthcare occupations.

People who are not in the labor force: why aren’t they working?

Source: Steven F. Hipple, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Beyond the Numbers, Employment & Unemployment, vol. 4, no. 15, December 2015

…This Beyond the Numbers article examines data on those who were not in the labor force during 2004 and 2014 and the reasons they gave for not working. The data are limited to people who neither worked nor looked for work during the previous year….

U.S. State and Local Public Pension Funds in Numbers

Source: Joshua Franzel, Center for State and Local Government Excellence, December 3, 2015

SLGE’s VP for Research Joshua Franzel spoke at the 5th Annual World Pensions & Investment Forum in Paris, France on December 3. His presentation focused on state and local public pension structures, funding, and the Public Plans Data resource.

In Our Own Backyard: Confronting Growth and Disparities in American Jails

Source: Ram Subramanian, Christian Henrichson, Jacob Kang-Brown, Vera Institute of Justice, December 2015

From the summary:
Although jails are the “front door” to mass incarceration, there is not enough data for justice system stakeholders and others to understand how their jail is being used and how it compares with others.

To address this issue, Vera researchers developed a data tool that includes the jail population and jail incarceration rate for every U.S. county that uses a local jail. Researchers merged jail data from two federal data collections—the Bureau of Justice Statistics Annual Survey of Jails and Census of Jails—and incorporated demographic data from the U.S. Census.

The data revealed that, since 1970, the number of people held in jail has increased from 157,000 to 690,000 in 2014—a more than four-fold increase nationwide, with growth rates highest in the smallest counties. This data also reveals wide variation in incarceration rates and racial disparities among jurisdictions of similar size and thus underlines an essential point: The number of people in jail is largely the result of choices made by policymakers and others in the justice system. The Incarceration Trends tool provides any jurisdiction with the appetite for change the opportunity to better understand its history of jail use and measure its progress toward decarceration.
Related:
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Employment Projections: 2014-24

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News Release, USDL-15-2327, December 8, 2015

From the summary:
Healthcare occupations and industries are expected to have the fastest employment growth and to add the most jobs between 2014 and 2024, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. With the increase in the proportion of the population in older age groups, more people in the labor force will be entering prime retirement age. As a result, the labor force participation rate is projected to decrease and labor force growth to slow. This slowdown of labor force growth is expected, in turn, to lead to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of 2.2 percent annually over the decade. This economic growth is projected to generate 9.8 million new jobs–a 6.5-percent increase between 2014 and 2024. The projections are predicated on assumptions including a 5.2 percent unemployment rate in 2024 and labor productivity growth of 1.8 percent annually over the projected period. Highlights of the BLS projections for the labor force and macroeconomy, industry employment, and occupational employment are included below.
Related:
Employment projections by occupational group 2014–24
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, December 30, 2015