Category Archives: Statistics

State and Local Government Workforce: 2018 Data and 10 Year Trends

Source: Gerald Young, Center for State and Local Government Excellence, International Public Management Association for Human Resources, and the National Association of State Personnel Executives, May 2018

From the summary:
Since 2009, the Center for State and Local Government Excellence has partnered with the International Public Management Association for Human Resources and the National Association of State Personnel Executives to conduct a study on state and local workforce issues. This year’s report contains both 2018 data on emerging issues like the gig economy and flexible work practices and longitudinal data on recruiting challenges, retirement plan or health benefit changes, hiring, and separations from service.

Which States Spend the Most Money on Their Students?

Source: Stephen Wheeler, U.S. Census Bureau, America Counts: Stories Behind the Numbers, June 2018

In 2016, public elementary and secondary schools across the nation received $353.2 billion in state and federal revenue, most of which goes into expenditures such as teacher’s salaries, transportation and other associated expenses.

So who’s spending the most on their students?

American Attitudes Toward Teacher Pay and Protests

Source: Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, April 2018

The April 2018 AP-NORC Poll asked 1,140 adults their views on teacher pay and recent protests advocating for more school funding.

​On April 19, 2018, teachers in Arizona voted to walk off the job to demand increased school funding, joining the movement for higher teacher pay that began in February in West Virginia and has spread to Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Colorado. In a recent survey conducted by The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research, 78 percent of Americans say teachers in this country are underpaid, but fewer approve of walkouts by teachers to demand pay raises and increased school funding.

Fifty-two percent approve of teachers striking to protest low teacher pay and school funding cuts, while 25 percent disapprove and 22 percent neither approve nor disapprove. But who is to blame when teacher labor unrest disrupts students’ education? Americans say there is plenty of blame to go around. ….

…. Seventy-eight percent of adults say public school teachers get paid too little for the work that they do, 6 percent say they get paid too much, and 15 percent say they get paid the right amount. Still, only 50 percent would support a plan to increase their taxes in order to increase teacher compensation and funding for their local public schools, while 26 percent would oppose such a plan, and 23 percent neither favor nor oppose. ….

Related:
Most Americans believe teachers have the right to strike
Source: Ipsos/NPR survey on the public’s views of teachers, April 26, 2018

A recent survey conducted on behalf of NPR shows that just one in four Americans believe teachers in this country are paid fairly. Furthermore, three-quarters agree teachers have the right to strike, including two-thirds of Republicans, three-quarters of independents and nearly 9 in 10 Democrats. 

Though nearly two-thirds approve of national teachers’ unions, an equal number (63%) agree that teachers’ unions do make it harder to fire bad teachers. Half of Americans (51%) agree that teachers’ unions improve both the quality of education and teachers, though these two questions vary based on party affiliation. Two-thirds or more of Democrats agree that teachers’ unions improve the quality of education and teachers, compared to less than half of Republicans…..

HPU Poll: NC Republicans and Democrats Agree on Education Issues
Source: March 7, 2018

…. Teacher pay raises: Majorities of North Carolinians also say that public school teachers are paid too little (85 percent) and claim that they would be willing to pay more in taxes so that North Carolina school teachers could be paid at the national average within five years (73 percent). In fact, large majorities of Democrats (72 percent), Republicans (72 percent), and unaffiliated (76 percent) residents of North Carolina say they would pay more in taxes for such a teacher pay raise. ….

New polls find most Americans say teachers are underpaid — and many would pay higher taxes to fix it
Source: Valerie Strauss, Washington Post, June 1, 2018

Teachers Find Public Support as Campaign for Higher Pay Goes to Voters
Source: Dana Goldstein and Ben Casselman, New York Times, May 31, 2018

Declining enrollment credit negative due to continued pressure on net tuition revenue

Source: Edison Castaneda, Susan I Fitzgerald, Dennis M. Gephardt, Moody’s, Sector Comment, May 29, 2018
(subscription required)

On May 21, the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center (NSCRC) released data showing that enrollment at US colleges and universities declined by 1.3% year-over-year in spring 2018 with some variation by type of institution (see Exhibit 1). This enrollment decline is credit negative for the sector given US colleges and universities’ high reliance on tuition and other student-generated revenue. Tuition and other student-generated income represents roughly 74% and 61% of revenue for four-year public and four-year private universities, respectively. Demographic trends and tuition pricing constraints will continue to suppress tuition revenue growth in fiscal 2018 with Moody’s projecting median net tuition revenue growth to increase just 2.4% for public universities and 2.0% for privates. Additionally, we project over 20% of public universities and 23% of privates to have declining net tuition revenue in fiscal 2018.

Related:
Current Term Enrollment Estimates – Spring 2018
Source: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center, Spring 2018

From the overview:
In spring 2018, overall postsecondary enrollments decreased1.3 percent from the previous spring. Figure1 shows the 12-month percentage change (fall-to-fall and spring-to-spring) for each term over the last three years. Enrollments decreased among four-year for-profit institutions (-6.8 percent), two-year public institutions (-2.0 percent), four-year private nonprofit institutions (-0.4 percent), and four-year public institutions (-0.2 percent). Taken as a whole, public sector enrollments (two year and four-year combined) declined by 0.9 percent this spring. Current Term Enrollment Estimates, published every December and May by the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center, include national enrollment estimates by institutional sector, state, enrollment intensity, age group, and gender. Enrollment estimates are adjusted for Clearinghouse data coverage rates by institutional sector, state, and year. As of spring 2018, postsecondary institutions actively submitting enrollment data to the Clearinghouse account for 97 percent of enrollments at U.S. Title IV, degree-granting institutions. Most institutions submit enrollment data to the Clearinghouse several times per term, resulting in highly current data. Moreover, since the Clearinghouse collects data at the student level, it is possible to report an unduplicated headcount, which avoids double-counting students who are simultaneously enrolled at multiple institutions.

School Spending Per Pupil Increased by 3.2 Percent, U.S. Census Bureau Reports

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Press Release, Release Number: CB18-TPS.28, May 21, 2018

The amount spent per pupil for public elementary-secondary education for all 50 states and the District of Columbia increased by 3.2 percent to $11,762 during the 2016 fiscal year, according to new tables released today by the U.S. Census Bureau.

The increase in spending in 2016 was due in part to the increase in revenue across all 50 states and the District of Columbia. In 2016, public elementary-secondary education revenue, from all sources, amounted to $670.9 billion, up 4.6 percent from the prior year. This is the largest increase since 2007.

Other highlights include:
Of the 50 states, New York ($22,366), the District of Columbia ($19,159), Connecticut ($18,958), New Jersey ($18,402) and Vermont ($17,873) spent the most per pupil in 2016. California (9.8 percent), Washington (7.4 percent), Hawaii (7.0 percent), Utah (5.8 percent) and New York (5.5 percent) saw the largest percentage increases in current spending per pupil from 2015 to 2016. To see the top 10 school districts by current spending per pupil, see the graphic Top 10 Largest School Districts by Per Pupil Current Spending.

Within public school systems, Mississippi (14.6 percent), Arizona (13.8 percent), South Dakota (13.5 percent), New Mexico (13.5 percent) and Montana (12.4 percent) received the highest percentage of their revenues from the federal government, while public school systems in New Jersey (4.1 percent), Connecticut (4.2 percent), Massachusetts (4.4 percent), New York (5.1 percent) and Minnesota (5.3 percent) received the lowest.

Cities Hit Hardest by Extreme Poverty

Source: Samuel Stebbins, 24/7 Wall St., April 17, 2018

From the summary:
….Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 24/7 Wall St. compared the percentage point change in concentrated poverty rates in U.S. metro areas between 2010 and 2016 to identify the cities where concentrated poverty is increasing most. The cities on this list span the United States geographically, from the West Coast to the East and from the South to the Midwest…..

Quarterly Summary of State and Local Government Tax Revenues: 4th Quarter 2017

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, G17-QTAX4, March 20, 2018

The summary provides quarterly estimates of state and local government tax revenue at a national level, as well as detailed tax revenue data for individual states. This report produces three tables: Tables 1 and 2 include income and sales data and Table 3 provides tax collections by state.

Fourth quarter 2017 tax revenues for the four largest state and local government tax categories increased 9.5 percent to $438.8 billion, from $400.8 billion in the same quarter of 2016.

Related:
Complete data sets

America’s Electoral Future: Demographic Shifts and the Future of the Trump Coalition

Source: Rob Griffin, Ruy Teixeira, and William H. Frey, Center for American Progress, April 14, 2018

From the introduction:
The recent elections of Donald Trump and Barack Obama were influenced in no small measure by shifts in the nation’s underlying demographic structure—the rise of communities of color, the increase in the number of older Americans, the sharpening of education divisions—and the distinctive voting behavior of these demographic groups. This 2018 report of the States of Change project, the fourth in an annual series, examines an array of future presidential election outcome scenarios—from 2020 through 2036—that could arise as the demography of the nation and its 50 states changes over the next 18 years.

These scenarios, developed by the authors, include outcomes that favor both Republican and Democratic candidates. They are not intended as predictions but are simulations based on assumptions about different demographic groups’ future voting patterns. Each of the alternative scenarios assumes the same projections for the nation’s underlying demographic structure of eligible voters (EVs) with respect to race, age, and education attainment. As such, the scenarios provide for a more in-depth understanding than national or state polling trends can supply about how emerging voting patterns may interact with changes in the demography of the nation’s electorate to affect future popular vote and Electoral College outcomes…..

Hawaii’s Working Population: An Analysis by Industry 2012-2016

Source: Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism Research and Economic Analysis Division, April 2018

From the press release:
The Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) released a report today, “Hawaii’s Working Population: An Analysis by Industry 2012-2016,” which shows the general demographic, social, and economic characteristics of Hawaii working population by industry.

“The report shows the structure of our industry from the employment perspective. The top two industries, Accommodation and Food Services and Retail Trade, are closely related to tourism and employed one fourth of our total working population,” said DBEDT Director Luis P. Salaveria. “It is encouraging that Hawaii employees in the Accommodation and Food Services sector were paid better than their counterparts in the nation.”

Hawaii’s average labor earnings and wages, in general, are lower than the U.S. average. Females made less income than males in almost all the industries. “The analysis in this report may be helpful for those planning to enter the labor market,” said Chief State Economist Dr. Eugene Tian “However, most of the statistics are averages for the industry combining all the occupations. We are working on another analysis looking at the characteristics of Hawaii’s working population by occupation.”….

Related:
PRICED OUT OF PARADISE
Source: Hawaii News Now, 2018
With our ongoing series, “Priced out of Paradise,” Hawaii News Now is exploring Hawaii’s high cost of living and why so many island families are struggling to make ends meet. Join the conversation on social media with the hashtag #HICostofLiving.

Report: In Honolulu, $40K salary now considered ‘very low income’
Source: Mileka Lincoln, Hawaii News Now, April 23, 2018

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development has released its income limits for 2018 — a calculation that is used to determine who can qualify for affordable and subsidized housing programs, and also helps establish fair market rent. HUD income limits in Hawaii are increasing substantially — in some cases by more than 10 percent — as the cost of living jumps each year. This means more people are qualifying for public assistance through housing vouchers or Section 8 placement, but those options are still as limited as before. According to HUD, as of 2018, low income for a single person in Honolulu is someone making up to $65,350. Just a year ago, it was $58,600. That’s a nearly $7,000 increase from 2017.

10 Things You Should Know on Tax Day

Source: Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (ITEP), April 13, 2018

Everyone pays taxes, including those who earn the least. Our collective federal, state, and local tax system includes income taxes, payroll taxes (Social Security, Medicare), property taxes, sales and other excise taxes. The total share of taxes (federal, state, and local) that Americans across the economic spectrum will pay in 2018 is roughly equal to their total share of income.