Category Archives: Statistics

Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States — 2017 Historical Trend Report

Source: Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, 2017

Vrom the summary:
…..This 2017 Indicators Report and the earlier reports compile statistical data since the 1970s from the nationally representative government statistics including the Census Bureau household studies and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)-sponsored high school and college longitudinal studies which track college entrance and completion by family income, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity.

A Special Focus on Understanding Equity. The 2015 edition of the Indicators Report began with a quote from the foreword to President Truman’s 1947 Commission on Higher Education that called attention to the dangers of a higher education system that functioned not to provide opportunity but to sort students: “If the ladder of educational opportunity rises high at the doors of some youth and scarcely rises at the doors of others, while at the same time formal education is made a prerequisite to occupational and social advance, then education may become the means, not of eliminating race and class distinctions, but of deepening and solidifying them.” The Indicators Reports are dedicated to increasing our understanding of how to address the equity issues raised by the Truman Commission Report 70 years ago.

Operationalizing Measures of Higher Education Opportunity in the United States. In these statistical reports, we operationalize the concept of “equity” in terms of several types of deviations from a distribution that would indicate “equal access to education.” For example, we observe the differences across quartiles of family income in the percentages of students entering college and receiving bachelor’s degrees. We also observe the extent to which, for example, the racial/ethnic distribution of the composition of the U.S. population differs from the racial/ethnic distribution of degree recipients.
The 2015 Indicators Report focused on equity in higher education based on measures of family income.

Family income remains the primary focus of the 2017 edition. Recognizing the need to also address inequity based on other interrelated demographic characteristics, the 2016 and 2017 editions include selected indicators that highlight differences by race/ethnicity, parent education, and a composite socioeconomic status (SES). The Indicators Reports present data as far back as comparable data warrant, often beginning with 1970. Methodological appendices provide additional relevant notes, tables, and figures……

Related:
Data / Charts
Essays
Presentations
Equity Indicators Website

Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates by Race and Ethnicity – Fall 2010 Cohort

Source: Doug Shapiro, Afet Dundar, Faye Huie, Phoebe Khasiala Wakhungu, Xin Yuan, Angel Nathan, Youngsik Hwang, National Student Clearinghouse Research Center and Project on Academic Success, Indiana University, Signature 12 Supplement, 2017

From the summary:
This supplement to our Signature Report 12 provides six-year completion rates disaggregated by race and ethnicity for students who began postsecondary education in fall 2010.

Among the study’s findings:
• Among students who started in four-year public institutions, black students had the lowest six-year completion rate (45.9 percent). The completion rate of Hispanic students was almost 10 percentage points higher than that of black students (55.0 percent). Over two-thirds of white and Asian students completed a degree within the same period (67.2 percent and 71.7 percent, respectively). Nationally, 62.4 percent of students finished a degree or certificate within six years.
• Nationally, 54.8 percent of students who started in any type of college or university in Fall 2010 completed a degree or certificate within six years. When examined by race and ethnicity, Asian and white students had a much higher completion rate (63.2 percent and 62.0 percent, respectively) than Hispanic and black students (45.8 percent and 38.0 percent, respectively). These rates include students who graduated after a transfer. They also count both full time and part time students.
• Among students who started in four-year public institutions, black men had the lowest completion rate (40.0 percent) and the highest stop-out rate (41.1 percent). Asian women had the highest completion rate (75.7 percent) and the lowest stop-out rate (11.2 percent).
• The overall completion rate for students who started in two-year public institutions was higher for white and Asian students (45.1 percent and 43.8 percent, respectively) than Hispanic and black students (33 percent and 25.8 percent, respectively). Nationally, the rate was 39.2 percent, as the Research Center reported in December 2016.
• The completion rate at four-year institutions for students who started at a community college (with or without receiving an associate’s degree first) was dramatically different for students of different racial and ethnic groups. While almost one in four Asian students and one in five white students had completed this transfer pathway by the end of the six-year study period, just one in 10 Hispanic students and about one in 12 black students did.
• The completion gaps between racial groups tend to shrink as students grow older. Among traditional-age students, there was a 24-percentage point gap in the completion rates of black and white students (42.7 percent and 66.8 percent, respectively) and 17.5-percentage points gap between Hispanic and white students (49.3 percent and 66.8 percent, respectively). Among adult learners (those who started college at 25 or older), however, the gap was 12.3 percentage points (42.0 percent and 29.7 percent, respectively) between black and white students and just 9.1 percentage points between Hispanic and white students (42.0 percent and 32.9 percent, respectively).

Related:
Download Appendix B (xlsx)
Download Appendix C (xlsx)

Graduation Rates and Race
Source: Emily Tate, inside Higher Ed, April 26, 2017
On average, white and Asian students earn a college-level credential at a rate about 20 percentage points higher than Hispanic and black students do, a new report shows.

Death on the Job: The Toll of Neglect – 2017

Source: AFL-CIO Safety and Health Department, 2017

A National And State-By-State Profile Of Worker Safety And Health In The United States

From the summary:

The High Toll of Job Injuries, Illnesses and Deaths
In 2015:
• 4,836 workers were killed on the job in the United States.
• The fatal injury rate—3.4 per 100,000 workers—remained the same as the rate in 2014.
• An estimated 50,000 to 60,000 workers died from occupational diseases.
• 150 workers died each day from hazardous working conditions.
• Nearly 3.7 million work-related injuries and illnesses were reported.
• Underreporting is widespread—the true toll is 7.4 million to 11.1 million injuries each year.

States with the highest fatality rates in 2015 were:
• North Dakota (12.5 per 100,000 workers)
• Wyoming (12.0 per 100,000 workers)
• Montana (7.5 per 100,000)
• Mississippi (6.8 per 100,000 workers)
• Arkansas (5.8 per 100,000 workers)
• Louisiana (5.8 per 100,000 workers)

Latino and immigrant workers continue to be at higher risk than other workers:
• The Latino fatality rate was 4.0 per 100,000 workers, 18% higher than the national average.
• Deaths among Latino workers increased significantly in 2015; 903 deaths, compared with 804 in 2014.
• Almost the entire increase in Latino deaths was among immigrant workers; 605 (67%) of Latino workers killed were immigrant workers.
• 943 immigrant workers were killed on the job—the highest since 2007.

Older workers are at high risk. In 2015:
• 35% of all fatalities occurred in workers ages 55 or older, with 1,681 deaths.
• Workers 65 or older have more than 2.5 times the risk of dying on the job as other workers, with a fatality rate of 9.4 per 100,000 workers.

OSHA Severe Injury Data from 29 States: 27 Workers a Day Suffer Amputation or Hospitalization; Poultry Processing Among Most Dangerous Industries

Source: Debbie Berkowitz and Hooman Hedayati, National Employment Law Project (NELP), Policy Brief, April 2017

From the press release:
A new report issued today by the National Employment Law Project, analyzing severe injury data compiled by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) from employers in a little over half the states, finds an average of 27 workers a day suffer work-related amputations or hospitalizations….

SHEF — State Higher Education Finance FY16

Source: Sophia Laderman, State Higher Education Executive Officers Association (SHEEO), April 2017

From the press release:
State and local governments provided nearly $90 billion in Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 to support higher education—a slight decrease in real terms from the FY 2015 level, marking the first decline in overall state and local support for higher education in four years. However, the level of $6,954 per student (down from $7,082 per student in 2015) was caused by an 80% reduction in support in Illinois, which was able to enact only a small “stopgap” budget for 2016. Overall, 33 states increased their support per student and 17 (including Illinois) plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico reduced support. (Forty states had increased support per student in 2015.) Average state and local government support per student remains 17% below FY 2008 levels and is lower in 45 states than it was before the Great Recession.

Tuition income showed its lowest increase in many years, growing by 2.1% in 2016. Despite that, the share of total educational expenditures supported by tuition rose to 47.8%, near its all-time high, due to a decline in community college enrollment and an increase in enrollment in four-year institutions, whose tuition usually is higher than that charged by two-year colleges….

Use the Data:
Interactive SHEF data – Tableau (includes state breakdown for case studies)
Unadjusted Nominal Data Set (XLS)
State-by-State Wave Charts (XLS)
Link to FY 2017 Grapevine Survey

Additional Information:
Glossary of Terms
List of Data Providers
Data Descriptions

Technical Papers:
Technical Paper A – HECA
Technical Paper B – EMI and COLI
Technical Paper C – Diverse Perspectives
Technical Paper D – Measures, Methods, and Analytical Tools

2016 Annual Survey of State Government Tax Collections

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Tip Sheet, Release Number: CB17-TPS.37, April 18, 2017

The 2016 Annual Survey of State Government Tax Collections provides a comprehensive look at state governments and contains statistics on the tax collections of all state governments, including receipts from compulsory fees. State governments and businesses have been using these statistics to make policy and investment decisions since 1951.

These statistics do not include employer and employee assessments for retirement and social insurance purposes. Also excluded are collections for the unemployment compensation taxes imposed by each of the state governments. These statistics include tax collections for state governments only; they do not include tax collections from local governments.
2016 Annual Survey of State Government Tax Collections Detailed Table [XLS,67KB]
2016 Annual Survey of State Government Tax Collections by Category Table [XLS,27KB]

Selected Major State Sales Taxes

Gains in Reducing Child Poverty, but Racial-Ethnic Disparities Persist

Source: Jessica Carson, Beth Mattingly, Andrew Schaefer, University of New Hampshire, Carsey School of Public Policy, National Issue Brief #118, Spring 2017

From the summary:
In 2015, for the second year in a row, child poverty rates declined in the United States. However, familiar patterns in levels and characteristics of child poverty persist: more than one in five children are poor; children of color are at disproportionate risk for poverty; and rates are highest in the South and West and in rural areas and cities (Table 1).

This brief uses data from the American Community Survey to investigate patterns of child poverty across race-ethnicities and across regions and place types. We also explore changes in child poverty rates since 2014 and since the end of the Great Recession in 2009. The estimates presented in this brief are based on the official poverty measure (see Box 1 on page 3). Native Americans, Alaskan and Hawaiian natives, and those reporting multiple racial-ethnic backgrounds are excluded from this update because such samples are too small for meaningful analyses.

Key Findings:
– Between 2014 and 2015, child poverty fell for all race-ethnicities except Asians.
– The largest declines in child poverty occurred among blacks and Hispanics, and the poverty gap between them and white and Asian children narrowed.
– Black child poverty rates dropped in cities, suburbs, and rural places; for children of all other race-ethnicities, rural rates remained stable.
Related:
Press release

Federal Tax Returns: Latest Rankings by County, State and More

Source: Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC), Report date: April 11, 2017

For many years, the county with the highest adjusted gross income per federal tax return payer was found in glossy locations such as Teton County, Wyoming, Fairfield County, Connecticut and New York Country, N.Y. But for the latest available tax year – returns filed during 2015 — the top ranking county in the nation according to this count has moved south, to McMullen County, Texas, where its best known feature is Boot Hill Cemetery in Tilden.

Though ranked among smallest of the nation’s 3,000 plus counties in terms of total population, when examined by another factor — the average adjusted gross income of the taxpayers in this very sparsely populated county easily tops the better known spots mentioned above as well as Falls Church City, Virginia, Marin County (Point Reyes Station), California and Pitkin County (Aspen, Colorado).

(Boot Hill Cemetery, established about 1858, gained its name because many of the interred reportedly were buried with “their boots on.”)

TRAC has updated its interactive Taxpayer Returns application with the latest data available from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). This unique tool makes it easy to browse through TRAC’s extensive store of information on the constantly shifting types of income going back to 1991 that flow to taxpayers in the fifty states and every one of the more than 3,000 counties.

Average wages and salaries continue to grow more slowly that total income from all sources. While average reported wages and salaries grew by 3.5 percent on returns filed in 2015 as compared with those filed the previous year, the average adjusted grow income (AGI) grew by 6.3 percent. Overtime, the proportion of reported income from wages and salaries has slipped. For returns filed during 2015 wages and salaries made up only 69 percent of reported AGI. For 2014 it was 71 percent. Ten years ago it was 73 percent, while twenty years ago wages and salaries made up 77 percent.

Fewer than two exemptions (1.95) are now being claimed on average on a return – down from over two (2.16) a decade ago. ….

The Impact of “Right-to-Work” Laws on Labor Market Outcomes in Three Midwest States: Evidence from Indiana, Michigan,and Wisconsin (2010–2016)

Source: Frank Manzo IV, Robert Bruno, Illinois Economic Policy Institute, Project for Middle Class Renewal, April 3, 2017

From the summary:
A new study finds that the introduction of “right-to-work” laws has reduced the unionization rate by 2.1 percentage points and lowered worker wages by 2.6% in Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

Recent “right-to-work” laws have had negative consequences for many workers in Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Illinois Economic Policy Institute.

The analysis focuses on labor markets in six Midwest states from 2010 through 2016. Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin all enacted “right-to-work” (RTW) laws during this period, providing a regional experiment on the effects of the laws. Three neighboring states– Illinois, Minnesota, and Ohio– serve as a comparison group because they did not have RTW laws at the beginning of the time frame and still do not have RTW today.

As of 2016, there were significant differences between the two groups of states. Notably, workers in Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin earned 8% less per hour on average than their counterparts in Illinois, Minnesota, and Ohio…..