Source: Center for Personal Assistance Services, 2009
PAS Workforce Library
Contains citations to resources related to each state. The library is provided and maintained by the National Clearinghouse on the Direct Care Workforce. Each citation contains an abstract and information about how to obtain the entire version.
* View the PAS Workforce library for any US State.
Number of Home and Personal Care Workers by State
The Center for PAS has tabulated, by state, estimates of the number of PAS workers and workers per persons with self-care difficulty.
* Read more and view the data for each US State.
Workforce Development Projects in Personal Assistance Services
More than 100 recently funded and currently funded research and demonstration projects to expand and improve the Personal Assistance Services workforce in the U.S.A. can be searched by state, category, and major federal, state, or foundation initiative. (updated 1/20/05)
* Search the Workforce Development Projects Database.
Source: Amy Hewitt, Sheryl Larson, Steve Edelstein, Dorie Seavey, Michael A. Hoge, John Morris, National Direct Service Workforce Resource Center, November 2008
From an abstract:
The Direct Service Worker Resource Center has released a white paper (pdf) that provides a first-ever overview of workforce challenges and practices across four critical service sectors:
intellectual and developmental disabilities
Usually, each of these sectors is studied and written about separately, reflecting a fragmentation that is deeply rooted in the separate funding, policy, service, and advocacy worlds of each of these sectors.
But this paper-written by a team of workforce experts (including PHI’s Steve Edelstein and Dorie Seavey) who span these service systems-takes a different approach. It sets out to investigate similarities and differences across the sectors in job titles and tasks, workforce demographics, supply and demand, job conditions and compensation, codes of ethical standards, training requirements, turnover, and career paths.
Source: Charlene Harrington, Terence Ng, Stephen H. Kaye, Robert Newcomer, Center for Personal Assistance Services, January 2009
Medicaid home and community based services (HCBS) have been the focus of widespread efforts by the federal and state government to expand access. The focus of this report is to examine issues of access, cost, and quality for Medicaid HCBS programs. The trends in state Medicaid HCBS programs, target groups, participants, and expenditures are summarized. The paper shows the progress in providing Medicaid HCBS but also identifies many current problems and policies. Inequities in access to services and limited funds result in unmet needs for HCBS. HCBS cost issues have been a primary focus of policy makers and quality problems are largely not addressed. Policy recommendations are made to improve access, costs and quality at the federal and state levels in the future.
Source: Center for Rural Health at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Workforce Information Center, February 2009
The Health Workforce Information Center (HWIC) provides free access to the most recent resources on the nation’s health workforce in one easy-to-use online location. Resources available through HWIC’s Web site will help health providers, educators, researchers and policymakers around the nation develop strategies to meet future workforce demands.
Through HWIC, you can stay up-to-date with the latest health workforce news and events, and connect with experts and organizations across the country.
HWIC offers the latest:
* Health workforce programs and funding sources
* Workforce data, research and policy
* Educational opportunities and models
* News and events
* Professionally-maintained and comprehensive online library
* E-mail news and updates
* Customized assistance from information specialists
Source: Karl Pillemer, Rhoda Meador, Charles Henderson, Jr., Julie Robison, Carol Hegeman, Edwin Graham, and Leslie Schultz, Gerontologist, Volume 48, Special Issue I , 2008
Employee retention programs for long-term care staff need to be cost-effective and evidence-based. A retention specialist (RS) situated in nursing homes is one strategy that could improve retention of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) in nursing homes.
The current article presented findings from a randomized, controlled evaluation of the Retention Specialist Program (RSP). RSP targeted systematic facility problems related to staff turnover. Data collection involved CNA interviews and measurement of turnover at 30 facilities at baseline, six months and 12 months. Facilities were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. As part of the intervention, RSs received training on retention, provision of ongoing technical assistance, and leveraging community resources. Outcome variables were attitudes toward the facility and satisfaction and job stress.
* In treatment facilities, CNA turnover rates significantly decreased from baseline to 12-month assessment as compared to control facilities.
* CNA ratings of quality of care increased from baseline to six-month assessment. Similar change was seen in quality of staff education and facility trainings.
* No changes were observed in job satisfaction or stress.
Source: United States Government Accountability Office, GAO-09-145, January 23, 2009
In fiscal year 2007, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) spent about $4.1 billion on long-term care for veterans. VA provides–through VA or other providers–institutional care in nursing homes and noninstitutional care in veterans’ homes or the community. In response to a statute, VA published in 2007 a long-term care strategic plan through fiscal year 2013. VA includes long-term care spending estimates in its annual budget justifications for Congress. These estimates are based on workload projections–the amount of care to be provided–and cost assumptions. VA has discretion in allocating appropriated funds among its medical services, such as long-term care. GAO examined (1) VA’s reporting of planned workload in its 2007 long-term care strategic plan and (2) VA’s long-term care spending estimates, including its cost assumptions and workload projections, in VA’s fiscal year 2009 budget justification. GAO analyzed budget and planning documents and interviewed VA officials.
Source: Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute, January 2009
Direct-care workers provide an estimated 70 to 80 percent of the paid hands-on long-term care and personal assistance received by Americans who are elderly or living with disabilities or other chronic conditions. These workers help their clients bathe, dress, eat, and negotiate a host of other daily tasks. They are a lifeline for those they serve, as well as for families struggling to provide quality care. Direct-care workers also constitute one of the largest and fastest-growing workforces in the country, playing a vital role in job creation and economic growth, particularly in low-income communities.
Source: Nicholas G. Castle, Journal of Gerontological Nursing, Vol. 35 No. 1, January 2009
Data from 3,946 nursing homes (66% response rate) were used to examine the advantages and disadvantages of using agency staff. A conceptual model showing potential reasons for the relationship between agency use and care quality was also developed. Fifty-nine percent of nursing homes used some agency staff (i.e., RNs, licensed practical nurses, nurse aides) in 2006. The conceptual model and empirical analyses show that agency staff likely influence other staff, facility operations, and residents. Administrators listed more disadvantages than advantages of using agency staff.
Source: SCAN Foundation, December 2008
- The majority of Medicaid spending is on services for long-term care users. Health reform efforts can target the healthcare needs of this population in order to strengthen Medicaid for the future.
- Some Medicare post-acute care services may fill-in for long-term care needs. Reform efforts can consider the long-term care needs of the Medicare population in order to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of these services.
- Medicare and Medicaid spending for dual eligibles is largely uncoordinated and unmanaged. Innovative reform efforts can coordinate and manage these services to improve quality and reduce costs.
- A significant amount of long-term care is privately financed and provided by informal caregivers. Reform efforts can leverage, rather than replace, these private contributions.
Source: National Association of State Units on Aging, December 8, 2008
The current economic crisis has many state aging directors grappling with difficult decisions on budget cuts and reductions in services. Not since the late eighties has the economy looked as sluggish. The most challenging times in the economy increase demand for state planning, budgeting, and monitoring for services that are delivered at the community level on everything from providing assistance with heating bills to providing home delivered meals as well as all types of home health supports.
The National Association of State Units on Aging (NASUA) surveyed its members to gauge the impact of the economic downturn on aging services. The members of NASUA are the nation’s 56 officially designated state and territorial agencies on aging, often referred to as State Units on Aging (SUAs). This is the second survey on the economy that NASUA completed in 2008. The first survey was conducted in June 2008. The most recent and more extensive survey was conducted in November. Forty-four states and the District of Columbia responded to the survey.