Source: National Recreation and Park Association, 2013
What roles and duties define the parks and recreation field?
– Stafﬁng and Volunteers
What categories of employees comprise the staffs of agencies of various sizes and types? What are the trends for full-time and part-time staffers? How many hours are contributed by volunteers?
What are typical operating expenditures and capital budgets for various size agencies? What are the most common sources of revenue? What kinds of renovation needs and capital needs are agencies experiencing?
– Programming and Attendance
How are park and recreation agencies serving their communities through recreation, education, health, wellness, and social programs?
– Operations, Maintenance, and Benchmarking
Key data on facilities, expenditures, attendance, and breadth of scope. What are the relationships between maintenance costs/budget and an agency’s character, magnitude, service level, materials, and environment?
– GIS and Mapping
GIS data highlighting how mapping technology can be used by communities of all types to create inventories of their lands and facilities with NRPA’s standardized GIS data model.
– Community Value
New Eco-benefits Calculator shows environmental and economic value of parks and recreation to communities.
Source: Peter Harnik, Ryan Donahue, Linden Weiswerda, Trust for Public Land, 2012
From the summary:
Over the past decade, the city parks movement has gained tremendous power, and one reason is the dramatic increase in the amount of information available about almost every aspect of urban park and recreation systems.
Some cities have plenty of parkland that’s well distributed around town; others have enough land but an inequitable distribution; others are short of even a basic amount of park space for their citizens.
Through an annual survey, our Center for City Park Excellence maintains the nation’s most complete database of park facts for the 100 most populous U.S. cities, allowing for city by city comparisons. The 2012 City Park Facts contains a number of new reports:
Distance to a Park. What percentage of the population can get to a park within a 10-minute walk (half a mile)?
Park Acres per Daytime Population.
Spending on Parks as Adjusted by Cost of Living.
Park Acreage Outside the City Limit.
individual report tables
Source: Nancy Jackson, American City and County, June 20, 2012
Despite budget cuts, creative parks and recreation departments have found ways to keep most services alive.
Source: Mike Maciag, Governing, June 14, 2012
…A Governing review of census and CDC data finds communities where more residents walk or bike to work boast significantly healthier weights. The analysis of 2010 statistics for 126 metropolitan areas finds these communities are strongly correlated with higher numbers of residents who are neither obese nor overweight.
Historically, studies have linked trails, sidewalks and bike lanes with an increase in walking or cycling. As medical costs continue to rise and evidence mounts that such infrastructure also improves well-being, more officials might look to give health consideration greater standing in transportation planning….
Source: Lawrence J. Cohen and Anthony T. DeBenedet, Time, December 29, 2011
If people’s lives are at stake because of poorly funded parks, shouldn’t we do something about it?
This has been a bad year for state and local parks. If you’ve come across park gates that are chained shut or playgrounds that are rusting, as we have, then you know this firsthand. Budget crises have forced states to not only drastically cut park funding but consider unprecedented closures as well. … This neglect runs contrary to public opinion, which consistently supports parks, even in a time of shrinking budgets, because they are good for the economy, animal habitats, family bonding, community building and the growing problems of childhood obesity and nature deficit disorder — a term coined by Richard Louv, who argues that children are spending less time outdoors because of parental safety fears and the presence of TV and other electronic screens. … But recent research suggests that parks aren’t just good for our well-being, they may even be a matter of life and death. In a December 2005 Environmental Health Perspectives article, Amy Schulz and her colleagues suggested that parks might be a protective factor in cardiovascular disease risk; an absence of safe parks may be part of why poverty leads to poorer health outcomes.
Source: National Recreation and Park Association, 2012
Health & Physical Activity
Crime & At-Risk Youth
Disparities In Parks & Recreation
Source: Peter Harnik and Elissa Hoagland, Trust for Public Land, e-newsletter, April 30, 2012
If you ran a business that controlled hundreds of mil¬lions of dollars worth of prime real estate, scenic walking trails, elegant gardens, boating basins, ice rinks, outdoor performance venues, forests, and fields, you’d probably want people to know about it. But scores of institutions with this kind of resource wealth do almost nothing to promote what they’ve got. They are America’s big-city park and recreation departments–from Boston to Los Angeles to Honolulu. According to a survey by The Trust for Public Land’s Center for City Park Excellence, almost half of the nation’s largest park departments do not spend any money on public outreach….
Reprinted from the August 2010 issue of Parks & Recreation magazine.
Source: Peter Harnik and Aric Merolli, Trust for Public Land, e-newsletter, April 30, 2012
Historically, it’s not a new idea. Before there were public parks, cemeteries–most famously in the United States Mt. Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which dates to 1831, and Greenwood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, which opened in 1838–were the primary manicured and sculpted green spaces within cities. As parks arose, the recreational use of graveyards fell off. But today, some cities have hundreds of acres of public and private cemetery grounds. Some already help mitigate the shortage of urban parkland (see “Selected Urban Cemeteries That Function Like Parks”). Others, with some modifications, could do the same.
Reprinted from the December 2010 issue of Landscape Architecture
Source: Tanya Kenevich, American Cemetery, April 2012
Looking at some cemeteries, you might get the impression that grounds maintenance consists of throwing down some grass seed and praying that it grows. However, American Cemetery’s 2012 grounds maintenance survey results show how important proper maintenance is.
Source: Daniel J. Stynes, National Park Service, Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/EQD/NRR–2011/481, December 2011
Visitors to the National Park System contributed more than $31 billion to local economies and supported 258,000 jobs in 2010, an increase of $689 million and 11,500 jobs over 2009, according to a report issued by the National Park Service today….The economic impact figures for the National Park System released today are based on $12 billion in direct spending by the 281 million visitors to parks in 2010 and are included in an annual, peer-reviewed, visitor spending analysis conducted by Dr. Daniel Stynes of Michigan State University.
This study provides updated estimates of NPS visitor spending for 2010 and extends the analysis to include impacts of the NPS payroll on local economies. Visitor spending and local impacts are estimated using the Money General Model version 2 (MGM2) based on 2010 park visits, spending averages from park visitor surveys, and local area economic multipliers. Impacts of the NPS payroll are estimated based on 2010 payroll data for each park….
– Press release
– Total Vistor Spending and Jobs by State and Park 2010