Category Archives: Mental Health

Examining Exposure Assessment in Shift Work Research: A Study on Depression Among Nurses

Source: Amy L Hall Renée-Louise Franche Mieke Koehoorn, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, Advance Access, January 11, 2018

From the abstract:
Introduction:
Coarse exposure assessment and assignment is a common issue facing epidemiological studies of shift work. Such measures ignore a number of exposure characteristics that may impact on health, increasing the likelihood of biased effect estimates and masked exposure–response relationships. To demonstrate the impacts of exposure assessment precision in shift work research, this study investigated relationships between work schedule and depression in a large survey of Canadian nurses.

Methods:
The Canadian 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses provided the analytic sample (n = 11450). Relationships between work schedule and depression were assessed using logistic regression models with high, moderate, and low-precision exposure groupings. The high-precision grouping described shift timing and rotation frequency, the moderate-precision grouping described shift timing, and the low-precision grouping described the presence/absence of shift work. Final model estimates were adjusted for the potential confounding effects of demographic and work variables, and bootstrap weights were used to generate sampling variances that accounted for the survey sample design.

Results:
The high-precision exposure grouping model showed the strongest relationships between work schedule and depression, with increased odds ratios [ORs] for rapidly rotating (OR = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91–2.51) and undefined rotating (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.92–3.02) shift workers, and a decreased OR for depression in slow rotating (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.57–1.08) shift workers. For the low- and moderate-precision exposure grouping models, weak relationships were observed for all work schedule categories (OR range 0.95 to 0.99).

Conclusions:
Findings from this study support the need to consider and collect the data required for precise and conceptually driven exposure assessment and assignment in future studies of shift work and health. Further research into the effects of shift rotation frequency on depression is also recommended.

The Effectiveness of Guided Imagery in Treating Compassion Fatigue and Anxiety of Mental Health Workers

Source: Kimberly A Kiley, Ashwini R Sehgal, Susan Neth, Jacqueline Dolata, Earl Pike, James C Spilsbury, Jeffrey M Albert, Social Work Research, Advance Articles, Published: January 4, 2018
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Mental health professionals’ exposure to clients’ traumatic experiences can result in elevated stress, including compassion fatigue and burnout. Experiencing symptoms of these types of stress can hinder workers’ ability to provide effective services. If a tool can reduce these symptoms, there is potential benefit for workers as well as those receiving their services. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prerecorded guided imagery (GI) on compassion fatigue and state anxiety. A total of 69 employees of a mental health nonprofit organization participated in this two-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and question 6 from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at baseline and follow-up, and completed State Trait Anxiety Inventory short form before and after each activity (GI or taking a break). Results revealed statistically significant differences in change scores between the control and experimental groups for state anxiety and sleep quality. The results suggest that GI may be useful for reducing stress for mental health professionals, which could have positive implications for quality of service delivery.

National Trends In Specialty Outpatient Mental Health Care Among Adults

Source: Beth Han, Mark Olfson, Larke Huang, and Ramin Mojtabai, Health Affairs, Vol. 36 No. 12, December 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
We examined national trends in the receipt of specialty outpatient mental health care, using data for 2008–15 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Between 2008–09 and 2014–15 the number of US adults who received outpatient mental health care in the specialty sector rose from 11.3 million to 13.7 million per year, representing an increase from 5.0 percent to 5.7 percent of the adult population. Among those recipients, however, the annual weighted mean number of visits to the specialty sector remained unchanged. We found increases in both numbers and percentages of adults who received care within the specialty sector across age and sex groups and among non-Hispanic whites, people with Medicare, people with private health insurance, and people with family incomes of $20,000–$49,999. Increases in receipt of specialty mental health care during 2012–15 may be related to recent policy initiatives aimed at reducing financial barriers to care.

The Short-Lived Benefits Of Abusive Supervisory Behavior For Actors: An Investigation Of Recovery And Work Engagement

Source: Xin Qin, Mingpeng Huang, Russell Johnson, Qiongjing Hu and Dong Ju, Academy of Management Journal, Published online before print September 11, 2017
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Although empirical evidence has accumulated showing that abusive supervision has devastating effects on subordinates’ work attitudes and outcomes, knowledge about how such behavior impacts supervisors who exhibit it is limited. Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we develop and test a model that specifies how and when engaging in abusive supervisory behavior has immediate benefits for supervisors. Via two experiments and a multi-wave diary study across 10 consecutive workdays, we found that engaging in abusive supervisory behavior was associated with improved recovery level. Moreover, abusive supervisory behavior had a positive indirect effect on work engagement through recovery level. Interestingly, supplemental analyses suggested that these beneficial effects were short-lived because, over longer periods of time (i.e., one week and beyond), abusive supervisory behavior were negatively related to supervisors’ recovery level and engagement. The strength of these short-lived beneficial effects was also bound by personal and contextual factors. Empathic concern–a personal factor–and job demands–a contextual factor–moderated the observed effects. Specifically, supervisors with high empathic concern or low job demands experienced fewer benefits after engaging in abusive supervisory behavior. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, and propose future research directions.

Related:
Being a jerk at work doesn’t pay off for long
Source: Andy Henion, Futurity, September 28th, 2017

Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies

Source: Jared T. Brown, Bruce R. Lindsay, Jaclyn Petruzzell, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report, R41981, September 8, 2017

While the disaster response and recovery process is fundamentally a relationship between the federal government and the requesting state or tribal government, there are roles for congressional offices. For instance, congressional offices may help provide information to survivors on available federal and nonfederal assistance, oversee the coordination of federal efforts in their respective states and districts, and consider legislation to supplemental disaster assistance or authorities. Congressional offices also serve as a valuable source of accurate and timely information to their constituents on response and relief efforts….

….Before and after a disaster strikes, it is useful to understand the basic national emergency management structure and where authority rests at various stages of the process. This report provides information to aid policymakers as they navigate the many levels of responsibility, and numerous policy pressure points; it describes the laws and administrative policies governing the disaster response and recovery process. The report also reviews the legislative framework that exists for providing federal financial assistance following disasters, as well as the policies the executive branch employs to provide supplemental help to state, tribal, and local governments during time of disasters…..

Related:
Congressional Considerations Related to Hurricanes Harvey and Irma
Source: Jared T. Brown, Congressional Research Service, CRS Insight, IN10763, September 8, 2017

This Insight provides a short overview of issues Congress may consider in relation to Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. It is not intended to provide up-to-date information on unfolding events. For storm-related updates and the current status of response efforts, see official government sources (e.g., Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and National Weather Service), congressional advisories from government sources, and/or news media. For additional support, please contact available CRS experts in disaster-related issue areas….

The mental health impact of major disasters like Harvey and Irma
Source: J. Brian Houston, Jennifer First, The Conversation, September 11, 2017

What do hospitals do in a hurricane? Use their own emergency plans
Source: Daniel B. Hess, The Conversation, September 11, 2017

Where have all the workers gone? An inquiry into the decline of the U.S. labor force participation rate

Source: Alan B. Krueger, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (BPEA), BPEA Conference Drafts, August 26, 2017

From the summary:
The increase in opioid prescriptions from 1999 to 2015 could account for about 20 percent of the observed decline in men’s labor force participation (LFP) during that same period.

In “Where have all the workers gone? An inquiry into the decline of the U.S. labor force participation rate” (PDF), Princeton University’s Alan Krueger examines the labor force implications of the opioid epidemic on a local and national level.

Beach Town Tries To Reverse Runaway Growth Of ‘Sober Homes’

Source: Greg Allen, NPR, Morning Edition, August 10, 2017

Some local and state officials in South Florida are calling for more regulation of addiction recovery residences to help combat insurance scams.
Related:
Sober Homes Task Force Report 2017
Source: Palm Beach County, Sober Homes Task Force Report, January 1, 2017

Grand Jury Report
Source: State Attorney for the 15th Judicial Circuit, Palm Beach County, December 8, 2016

Delray Beach Principles to Guide Zoning for Community Residences for People with Disabilities
Source: Daniel Lauber, prepared for the City of Delray Beach Florida, May 2017

Taking Care of the Mentally Ill

Source: B.L. Sloan, D.E. Efeti, Corrections Today, Vol. 79 no. 3, May/June 2017
(subscription required)

A training opportunity for correctional professionals. …. Across the nation, individuals with a serious mental illness are three times more likely to be incarcerated than placed in a mental health facility. … Because of this ever-growing population, the challenges facing correctional staff regarding custody, supervision and treatment of mentally ill offenders have never been greater. Therefore, it is not only necessary for the treatment staff to address then needs of the mentally ill offender, but it is critical for security staff members to understand and recognize problems faced by this special population and be better equipped to manage it. ….