Category Archives: Furloughs/Layoffs/Turnover

A Look At Terminations For Protest-Related Activities

Source: Laura Scott, Employment Alert, Volume 37, Issue 19, September 16, 2020
(subscription required)

…Private employers may be wondering whether and when an employee may be fired for engaging in protest-related conduct. The First Amendment protects an individual’s freedom of speech, right to assemble, and therefore the right to peacefully protest. But, it does not guarantee an employee a job.

If an employee is “at will,” an employer can technically end the employment relationship at any time for any reason. But, it’s rarely a good idea to terminate someone “just because.”

Also, depending on the applicable state law, a private employer may be barred from taking adverse employment action against an employee for conduct engaged in at a protest while off duty…..

Why unions are good for workers—especially in a crisis like COVID-19: 12 policies that would boost worker rights, safety, and wages

Source: Celine McNicholas, Lynn Rhinehart, Margaret Poydock, Heidi Shierholz, and Daniel Perez, Economic Policy Institute, August 25, 2020

From the summary:
What this report finds: The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored both the importance of unions in giving workers a collective voice in the workplace and the urgent need to reform U.S. labor laws to arrest the erosion of those rights. During the crisis, unionized workers have been able to secure enhanced safety measures, additional premium pay, paid sick time, and a say in the terms of furloughs or work-share arrangements to save jobs. These pandemic-specific benefits build on the many ways unions help workers. Following are just a few of the benefits, according to the latest data:

• Unionized workers (workers covered by a union contract) earn on average 11.2% more in wages than nonunionized peers (workers in the same industry and occupation with similar education and experience).
• Black and Hispanic workers get a larger boost from unionization. Black workers represented by a union are paid 13.7% more than their nonunionized peers. Hispanic workers represented by unions are paid 20.1% more than their nonunionized peers.

Promotion: An Intractable Management Problem for Academic and Public Libraries

Source: Robert P. Holley, Journal of Library Administration, Vol. 60 no. 5, 2020
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
The lack of opportunities for promotion within libraries may be an important reason for job dissatisfaction and lowered morale. This column examines reasons why librarians wish to be promoted, the two paths for promotion, a short history of promotion since 1945, how promotions occur, why promotion is a challenge for management, and some suggestions to alleviate the problem. The corporate promotion model requires moving into a position with increased responsibilities and is often the only model in public libraries. The academic promotion model also offers the possibility of promotion for increased performance of the same duties, usually according to more formal rules. A blocked path for promotion can lead to leaving the library for opportunities elsewhere or create morale problems. Library managers can take some steps to increase promotion opportunities and sustain morale. The concluding section briefly argues the opposing viewpoint that the current state of promotion may benefit the profession as a whole if not some individual librarians.

Academic Librarian Burnout: A Survey Using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI)

Source: Barbara A. Wood, Ana B. Guimaraes, Christina E. Holm, Sherrill W. Hayes & Kyle R. Brooks, Journal of Library Administration, Vol. 60 no. 5, 2020
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
In the Spring of 2018, the authors administered the highly validated and reliable Copenhagen Burnout Inventory work-related sub-scale to 1,628 academic librarians employed within the United States. Academic librarians reported a total work-related burnout score of 49.6. Overall, female participants who were 35–44 years of age reported the highest levels of work-related burnout with males and older individuals reporting the lowest levels of work-related burnout. This study also revealed some interesting information about non-binary/third-gender librarians that suggests further research is warranted.

Contributory Factors to Academic Librarian Turnover: A Mixed-Methods Study

Source: Christina Heady, Amy F. Fyn, Amanda Foster Kaufman, Allison Hosier & Millicent Weber, Journal of Library Administration, Vol. 60 no. 6, 2020
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Motivation: Research has shown that high employee turnover is correlated with negative overall performance and increased costs.

Problem: While employee turnover has been a significant area of study in organizational psychology and human resources management, there are few recent studies related to employee turnover in academic libraries.

Approach: This study examined the reasons librarians identified for leaving one academic institution for another within a five-year period via an online survey.

Results: Results indicate that turnover within academic libraries is influenced by several factors related to work environment, compensation and benefits, job duties and personal needs.

Conclusion: Understanding why librarians leave their positions is the first step toward improving employee retention in academic libraries.

Facility-level Factors Associated with CNA Turnover and Retention: Lessons for the Long-Term Services Industry

Source: Katherine A Kennedy, Robert Applebaum, John R Bowblis, The Gerontologist, Published: July 29, 2020
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Background and Objectives:
Certified nursing assistant (CNA) turnover and retention are critical aspects of facilities’ ability to provide cost-effective, high quality person-centered care. Previous studies and industry practice often treat turnover and retention as similar concepts, assuming that low turnover and high retention are synonymous. The study addressed the question of whether turnover and retention rates differ and if so, what do those differences mean for nursing home practice, policy, and research.

Research Design and Methods:
This study examines facility-level factors associated with CNA retention and turnover rates using 2015 data from the Ohio Biennial Survey of Long-Term Care Facilities, Ohio Medicaid Cost Reports, Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Report, and the Area Health Resource File. Using bivariate tests and regression analysis, we compare rates and the factors associated with retention and turnover.

Results:
The mean facility annual retention rate was 64% and the mean annual turnover rate was 55%. As expected, there was a statistically significant and negative correlation between the rates (r = -0.26). However, some facilities had both high retention and high turnover and some had low rates for both measures. Not all the variables that are associated with turnover are also associated with retention.

Discussion and Implications:
CNA retention is not simply the absence of CNA turnover. Given the differences, nursing homes may need to use strategies and policies designed to target a particular stability measure.

Nurse Aide Retention in Nursing Homes

Source: Nicholas G Castle, PhD, Kathryn Hyer, PhD, MPP, John A Harris, MD, MSc, John Engberg, PhD, The Gerontologist, Advance Access, March 6, 2020
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Background and Objectives: The association of nurse aide retention with three quality indicators is examined. Retention is defined as the proportion of staff continuously employed in the same facility for a defined period of time.

Research Design and Methods: Data used in this investigation came from survey responses from 3,550 nursing facilities, Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. Staffing characteristics, quality indicators, facility, and market information from these data sources were all measured in 2016. Nurse aide retention was measured at 1, 2, and 3 years of employment. The quality indicators examined were a count of all deficiency citations, quality of care deficiency citations, and J, K, L deficiency citations. Negative binomial regression analyses were used to study the associations between the three different retention measures and these three quality indicators.

Results: The 1-, 2-, and 3-year nurse aide retention measures were 53.2%, 41.4%, and 36.1%, respectively. The regression analyses show low levels of retention to be generally associated with poor performance on the three deficiency citation quality indicators examined.

Discussion and Implications: The research presented starts to provide information on nurse aide retention as an important workforce challenge and its potential impact on quality. Retention may be an additional staffing characteristic of nursing facilities with substantial policy and practice relevance.

Pension Reforms and Public Sector Turnover

Source: Evgenia Gorina, Trang Hoang, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Published: June 24, 2019

From the abstract:
Over the past decade, many states have reformed their retirement systems by reducing benefit generosity, tightening retirement provisions, introducing non-defined-benefit (DB) plan options and even replacing DB plans with defined-contribution plans. Many of these reforms have affected post-employment benefits that public workers will receive when they retire. Have these reforms also affected the attractiveness of public sector employment? To answer this question, we use state-level data from 2002 to 2015 and examine the relationship between state pension reforms and public employee turnover following the reforms. We find that employee responsiveness to the reforms was tangible and that it differed by reform type and worker education. These results are important because the design of public retirement benefits will continue to influence the ability of the public sector to recruit and retain high-quality workforce.

A correction has been published.

To Prevent Burnout, Hire Better Bosses

Source: Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Harvard Business Review, August 23, 2019

…. Yet, there’s still one, big unaddressed issue that keeps popping up: burnout. In the U.S. alone, workplace stress costs the economy around $300 billion per year in absenteeism, diminished productivity, and legal and medical fees. Unsurprisingly, study after study shows that stress and burnout are major drivers of staff turnover, accidents, injuries, and substance abuse. Even among the top companies and the most desirable places to work this is a problem — and its generally the consequence of one thing: bad leadership.

In theory, leaders should be shielding their followers and subordinates from stress, operating as a beacon of calmness and safety throughout difficult times. In reality, however, leaders are more likely to cause stress than to reduce it. This problem is far more common than it should be. Millions of employees around the world suffer the consequences of bad leadership, including burnout, alienation, and decreased mental and physical wellbeing. This is particularly true when managers practice abusive behaviors, but at times, it’s their sheer incompetence that demotivates, demoralizes, and stresses out their teams. Lacking technical expertise, having no clue how to give or receive feedback, failing to understand potential, or a general inability to evaluate their subordinates’ performance, are just some of the common signs of incompetence.

To that end, here are four critical lessons you should consider:
There is no better cure than prevention. ….
It is more profitable to remove toxic leaders than to hire superstars. ….
Resilience can hide the effects of bad leadership. ….
Boring is often better. ….

2019 State of the Workforce Report: Pay, Promotions and Retention

Source: Ahu Yildirmaz, Christopher Ryan, Jeff Nezaj, ADP Research Institute, June 2019

All employers face the fundamental challenge of structuring, rewarding and motivating their organization’s workforce for optimal productivity and overall business performance. Unfortunately, there is no magic formula for success that works in all situations. Each employer faces its own unique circumstances — mission, market demand, competitive differentiation, labor availability and cost structure, among other things — that drive continuous change. Existing literature suggests that an organization’s ability to adapt to these changes is fundamental to the organization’s survival.

…. As a comprehensive, up-to-date source of organizational data, the findings in the report provide a solid basis for firms to understand their own organizational dynamics and improve performance.

Key observations from this inaugural study illustrate some of the ways employers can use this data:
– On average, employers will promote 8.9 percent of their employees annually, and those employees will receive an average wage increase of 17.4 percent
– Firms are more likely to promote internal employees for management positions
– Promotions within a team are associated with higher turnover among other team members
– Employee turnover varies significantly with demographic factors
– Males and females show significant disparities across pay and organizational hierarchies