Source: Tracey Kyckelhahn, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 236218, December 2011
In 2007, federal, state, and local governments spent $228 billion and employed 2.5 million persons for police protection, corrections, and judicial
and legal services. Local police protection represented the largest share of both total justice expenditures (32%) and employment (36%), followed by state corrections (19% of expenditures and employment).
The findings in this report are based on the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts (JEE) series, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Government Finance Survey and Annual Survey of Public Employment. The data include yearly information on federal, state, and local government expenditures and employment for three justice functions: corrections, police protection, and judicial and legal services (for definition of terms, see page 9). Expenditure data are presented in real terms (see Methodology for more details). Extract tables from this series are accessible on the BJS website.
Source: FBI, 2011
From the press release:
According to information released today by the FBI, 56 law enforcement officers were feloniously killed in the line of duty last year; 72 officers died in accidents while performing their duties; and 53,469 officers were assaulted in the line of duty. The 2010 edition of Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted released today provides comprehensive tabular data about these incidents and brief narratives describing the fatal attacks.
Source: United States Sentencing Commission, October 2011
From the press release:
Today the United States Sentencing Commission submitted to Congress
its 645-page report assessing the impact of statutory mandatory minimum penalties on federal sentencing….In the report, the Commission recommends with respect to drug offenses that Congress reassess certain statutory recidivist provisions, and consider possible tailoring of the “safety valve” relief mechanism to other low-level, non-violent offenders convicted of other offenses carrying mandatory minimum penalties….The Commission also addresses the overcrowding in the federal Bureau of Prisons, which is over-capacity by 37 percent.
– U.S. study urges sentencing reform
Source: UPI, October 31, 2011
– States Redefine Felonies to Cut Costs
Source: Whitney Wetzel, WDTV.com, 02 November 2011
– State budget cuts clog criminal justice system
Source: Greg Bluestein, Associated Press, October 26, 2011
Source: Lois M. Davis, Michael Pollard, Kevin Ward, Jeremy M. Wilson, Danielle M. Varda, Lydia Hansell and Paul Steinberg, Prepared for the National Institute of Justice by the RAND Corporation, document number 232791, December 2010
This study examined the long-term adjustments that large, urban law enforcement agencies made to accommodate the renewed focus on counterterrorism and homeland security. The researchers present case studies of five major law enforcement agencies in major metropolitan areas to understand their experiences in these areas post-9/11.
Source: Kristian Williams, Dollars and Sense, no. 296, September/October 2011
Police support for protesters in Wisconsin was an exception to the historical rule.
Source: Maureen Moran, LLRX, August 18, 2011
Maureen Moran addresses research associated with the civil liberties, legal and law enforcement issues involving widespread availability – approximately 11,500 law enforcement agencies have acquired CEDs, or conducted energy devices. Tasers are the most common electronic control device used by law enforcement today.
Source: Jane Wiseman, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, Research for Practice, NCJ 232077, July 2011
The United States is experiencing the 10th economic decline since World War II. This document presents lessons learned from past experience and suggests approaches leaders can use to address financial crises in law enforcement agencies.
Leadership is the most critical element for success. We know from the past that an organization’s leaders create a shared sense of the importance of the priorities and tasks of the group. It is this inspiration that induces workers to follow along in support of the group’s mission.
Additional lessons learned from the past:
• Avoid across-the-board cuts. They cause disproportionate harm.
• Use the crisis to improve management and improve productivity. In law enforcement, examples abound of departments faced with unfortunate crises — from consent decrees to accidental shootings — where the events provided meaningful moments of reflection, learning and process improvement. Budget crises are no different.
• Think long term. Research has shown that organizations capable of enduring a deep fiscal crisis had developed and were able to stick to a strategic plan with a multiyear time frame.
• Do not just cut costs, look for revenue opportunities. Research on past recessions shows that increasing a tax or fee provides relief faster than cutting expenditures. Although police agencies do not have the power to levy taxes, they may be able to charge user fees for some services.
• Invite innovation. During past fiscal crises, new approaches were tried that are now standard in many cities. For example, local governments have privatized certain city services and sold public facility naming rights.
• Look outside for help. Law enforcement can look outside the department to other government agencies, or to suppliers, academics or other subject matter experts for suggestions on improving operations at reduced cost.
• Targeted layoffs are more effective than hiring freezes.
Source: Brian A. Reaves, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 233982, July 26, 2011
From the abstract:
Presents the results of the Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, which is conducted every four years and covers approximately 18,000 law enforcement agencies nationwide. This report includes the number of state and local law enforcement agencies as of September 2008 and the number of sworn and civilian employees. Breakdowns are presented for general purpose agencies, including local police departments, sheriffs’ offices, and primary state law enforcement agencies. The report also provides data for agencies that serve special jurisdictions “such as parks, college campuses, airports, or transit systems” or that have special enforcement responsibilities pertaining to laws in areas such as natural resources, alcohol, or gaming.
Highlights include the following:
* State and local law enforcement agencies employed about 1,133,000 persons on a full-time basis in 2008, including 765,000 sworn personnel.
* About half (49%) of all agencies employed fewer than 10 full-time officers. Nearly two-thirds (64%) of sworn personnel worked for agencies that employed 100 or more officers.
* From 2004 to 2008, state and local law enforcement agencies added about 9,500 more full-time sworn personnel than during the previous 4-year period.
Source: National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund, Research Bulletin, 2011
A total of 98 federal, state and local law enforcement officers died during the first half of 2011 (January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2011), according to preliminary data compiled by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund. This represents a 14% increase over the 86 officer fatalities during the same time in 2010. Firearms-related fatalities reached a 20-year high, increasing 33% from 30 to 40 officers shot and killed in 2011.
– Press Release
– Law Enforcement Officer Deaths: Final 2010 Report
– Law Enforcement Officer Deaths: Final 2009 Report
– Law Enforcement Officer Deaths: Final 2008 Report
– Law Enforcement Officer Deaths: Final 2007 Report
Source: Jeffrey H. Keefe, Briefing Paper #314, June 21, 2011
From the abstract:
How cutting police budgets and laying off cops in high-crime cities lacks economic, social, and common sense.