– The 79 cents to the dollar figure cited as the gender pay ratio for full-time workers is real.
– Hourly wage data show a pay ratio of 85 cents, indicating that the pay gap cannot be fully explained by the fact that men tend to work more hours than women.
– The pay ratio worsens from 90 cents to 81 cents as women move from the early to middle stages of their careers.
– Occupations with more female workers pay less than those with more male workers, by a ratio of 83 cents to the dollar.
– Women still make less than men after accounting for differences in job type, job level, experience, education, hours worked, and location—which proves bias in the workplace also contributes to the gender pay gap.
– A single fix alone will not close the gap; rather, it will require targeted solutions to its various causes.
The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations
Source: Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn, IZA Discussion Paper, IZA DP No. 9656, January 2016
Occupational Feminization and Pay: Assessing Causal Dynamics Using 1950–2000 U.S. Census Data
Source: Asaf Levanon, Paula England, Paul Allison, Social Forces, Vol. 88 no. 2, 2009
Book Review: Making Technology Masculine: Men, Women, and Modern Machines in America, 1870-1945
Source: American Historical Review, Vol. 106 no. 1, February 2001