Category Archives: Higher Education

Moving Upward and Onward: Income Mobility at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Source: Rutgers Center for Minority Serving Institutions (CMSI), September 2019

From the press release:
More students experience upward mobility at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) than Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs) asserts a new report published by the Rutgers Center for Minority Serving Institutions (CMSI). The report entitled, Moving Upward and Onward: Income Mobility at Historically Black Colleges and Universities, examines the intergenerational income mobility of recent HBCU graduates and explores upward mobility variations and economic stratification based on institution type.

The report begins with a foreword by Dillard University President Walter Kimbrough, which provides an important narrative on how HBCUs have routinely supported low-income and Pell Grant-eligible students. Kimbrough situates the value of these storied institutions within the historical context of higher education. According to the report, HBCUs enroll far more low-income students than PWIs. More specifically, the report claims that nearly one-quarter of HBCU students are low-income and more than half of all HBCU students come from households in the bottom 40% of the U.S. income distribution.

Three Big Ideas for a Future of Less Work and a Three-Dimensional Alternative

Source: Cynthia Estlund, Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 82 no. 3, 2019

….At the same time, each of those three big ideas holds within it an essential component of a sound three dimensional response to the uncertain but real prospect of job losses. In lieu of UBI [universal basic income], we should expand universal social benefits—starting with health care and higher education—and income support for the working and non-working poor. In lieu of a federal job guarantee, we should ramp up public investments in infrastructure, social and community services, and early education, all of which would address unmet societal needs while creating decent jobs. And in lieu of (or at least before) reducing weekly hours of work across the board, we should expand access to paid leaves, holidays, and vacations, as well as voluntary part-time work and retirement security; we could thereby spread work and meet varied individual needs and preferences through days, weeks, months, and years of time off.

In combination, these three interventions—expanded universal social benefits and income support, public investments in physical and social infrastructure and the job creation those will entail, and wider access to paid leaves and respites from work—would advance core objectives of each of the three big ideas while muting their disadvantages. Together they would both cushion and offset automation-related job losses, while spreading the work that remains and maintaining or boosting incomes. This trio of policies could and should also be funded in a way that helps to redistribute income from the top to the bottom of an egregiously and increasingly lopsided income distribution.

…..In what follows, I will fill in the outlines of this argument. Part II will briefly set out some normative priors about the multiple ends we should be pursuing as we face a future of less work. A long Part III will take up each of the Three Big Ideas, briefly tracing their genealogy and identifying some strengths and weaknesses of each. Part IV will return to the core aspirations of the Three Big Ideas, and sketch a combination of the three – a three-dimensional strategy – that can preserve much of the good while avoiding much that is problematic in the more single-minded Three Big Ideas. ….

Highlights from occupational safety and health continuing education needs assessment

Source: Joshua G. Scott, Erin Shore, Carol Brown, Carisa Harris, Mitchel A. Rosen, American Journal of Industrial Medicine,
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Background:
There is a lack of trained Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) professionals able to meet the current and future demand for such expertize in the United States. Many OSH professionals are required to perform duties, which are outside of their primary area of expertize; thus, expansion of continuing education (CE) may be necessary to properly train individuals for new OSH responsibilities.

Methods:
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health‐funded Education and Research Centers collectively developed and distributed an internet‐based survey to gauge the CE needs and interests of the OSH workforce.

Results:
A total of 2064 responses were received. The most common primary professions represented were safety (28%), occupational health nursing (18%), and industrial hygiene (12%). The majority of respondents (61%) reported that they perform work activities outside of those associated with their primary OSH profession. The CE offerings with the highest interest among respondents were related to safety. Other courses with high levels of interest included topics such as legal issues in OSH (88%), compliance (88%), risk management (85%), OSH management (83%), risk communication (83%), and communication in accident prevention (81%). Health and safety leadership (82%), health and safety culture (78%) and total worker health (74%) were also significant interests.

Conclusions:
It is important to be responsive to the evolving needs of the OS&H community. Developing relevant courses will help ensure that OS&H professionals have access to the training they need to perform essential job functions and keep employees healthy and safe.

Meeting the Need: Developing Certification for Advanced Water Treatment Operators

Source: Steven Garner, Journal – AWWA, Volume 111 Issue 9,
September 2019

(subscription required)

Key Takeaways
The California–Nevada Section of AWWA and California Water Environment Association sought a new industry certification for operators working with advanced water treatment (AWT) processes.

A diverse set of stakeholders and experts added their perspectives on the development of the new certification.

The AWTO Grade 3 exam was released in July 2019.

Professional certifications and occupational licenses: evidence from the Current Population Survey

Source: Evan Cunningham, Monthly Labor Review, June 2019

This article uses data from the Current Population Survey to analyze the role of professional certifications and occupational licenses in the U.S. labor market. It discusses the prevalence of these credentials among the employed by age, gender, race, ethnicity, educational attainment, and occupation. This analysis also explores the relationships between certifications, licenses, and earnings. Finally, the article presents new data on certification and licensing by detailed occupation and whether the credential is required for one’s job.

The Changing Pattern of Returns to Education: What Impact Will this Have on Inequality?

Source: Harry A. Patrinos, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 8866, May 28, 2019

From the abstract:
The pattern of economic rates of return to investments in education can help us to understand the benefits of schooling. It was common knowledge that the returns to education were highest for the primary level of education and lower for subsequent levels. Recent evidence suggests that the pattern has changed. Since the 1980s, the returns to schooling overall have increased. The returns to higher education have increased the most. The fact that the more educated have improved their position, despite an increase in their numbers, must mean that the demand for more educated workers has increased more than supply over time, causing an increase in the overall returns to schooling. Possible reasons include technological change favoring higher-order skills, increased coverage at lower levels of schooling, and the quality of schooling.

Ten Years After: The Development of a University Staff Pay System—Reflections and the Lessons Learned

Source: Steven L. Thomas, Lyn M. McKenzie, Compensation & Benefits Review, OnlineFirst, July 22, 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
This article documents the development and implementation of a new staff pay system for a large, comprehensive, public university. It discusses decisions that were made, alternatives chosen, important process issues and outcomes, as a guide to administrators and human resource staff into what can be expected as new job structures, pay and performance management systems are developed. The authors review program successes and remaining challenges from the perspective of 10 years after system implementation.

In Hospitals With More Nurses Who Have Baccalaureate Degrees, Better Outcomes For Patients After Cardiac Arrest

Source: Jordan M. Harrison, Linda H. Aiken, Douglas M. Sloane, J. Margo Brooks Carthon, Raina M. Merchant, Robert A. Berg, Matthew D. McHugh, Health Affairs, Vol. 38 No. 7, July 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
In 2010, prompted by compelling evidence that demonstrated better patient outcomes in hospitals with higher percentages of nurses with a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN), the Institute of Medicine recommended that 80 percent of the nurse workforce be qualified at that level or higher by 2020. Using data from the American Heart Association’s Get With the Guidelines–Resuscitation registry (for 2013–18), RN4CAST-US hospital nurse surveys (2015–16), and the American Hospital Association (2015), we found that each 10-percentage-point increase in the hospital share of nurses with a BSN was associated with 24 percent greater odds of surviving to discharge with good cerebral performance among patients who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest. Lower patient-to-nurse ratios on general medical and surgical units were also associated with significantly greater odds of surviving with good cerebral performance. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that supports policies to increase access to baccalaureate-level education and improve hospital nurse staffing.

Unlocking Access

Source: Bennett G. Boggs and Lesley Kennedy, State Legislatures, May/June 2019

Free tuition programs are opening doors for some students—but are they making the grade?

….“Free college” has caught the attention of many. Seventeen states and more than 350 localities in 44 states have enacted free college policies, and 23 states considered or are still debating legislation this year…..

Has Higher Education Solved the Problem? Examining the Gender Wage Gap of Recent College Graduates Entering the Workplace

Source: Xueqing Fan, Michael Sturman, Compensation & Benefits Review, OnlineFirst, Published June 19, 2019
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
While there has been extensive historical evidence demonstrating the gender wage gap, gains made by women in terms of higher education may be reducing the gap among those recently entering the workforce. Education is a major determinant of wage, and women are often outpacing men now in terms of educational achievement. Thus, the question remains of whether these gains in education have reduced or even eliminated gender wage inequality. This study examines the gender wage difference among new graduates with the same education level using the most recent data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort. Despite the hope that greater representation of women with higher degrees would reduce or eliminate the gender wage gap for new entrants to the labor market, our results show that newly graduated men with an associate, bachelor’s, or master’s degree still earn significantly higher wages than newly graduated women with a same degree. Thus, in what we argue is a highly conservative test for the presence of the gender wage gap, the evidence strongly suggests that the wage gap is a continued and pervasive problem in the modern workplace.