Category Archives: Health & Safety

Sexual Harassment Cases Go Uncounted as Complaint Process Goes Private

Source: Jeff Green, Bloomberg, April 23, 2018

Even as women have begun speaking out about sexual harassment at work, the number of official complaints to state and federal regulators hit a two-decade low in 2017.

The federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and its state-level counterparts received just over 9,600 complaints in 2017, according to data obtained by Bloomberg, down from more than 16,000 in 1997—a 41 percent drop.

Shot on the Way to Work: Is Travel Time Work Time?

Source: Fatima Hussein, Daily Labor Report, April 18, 2018
(subscription required)  

• Worker killed on the way to on-call employment draws questions of travel time to work 
• Consequences of case could affect wage and hour claims in Ohio

After an on-call Ohio hospital worker was fatally shot on his way to work, his widow was awarded a worker’s compensation claim in her late husband’s name. ….

Workplace violence in healthcare

Source: Journal of Healthcare Protection Management, Vol. 34 no. 1, 2018
(subscription required)

Articles include:

Team Wilson: how a single workplace violence incident changed healthcare security
Robert Rusting
A potential breakthrough in the need for hospital management to recognize the consequences of violence to nurses and other staff members and to take action to upgrade security result from CEO reactions to a horrendous incident in a Massachusetts hospital. The involvement of a nurses’ organization [the Massachusetts Nurses Association] in providing hospital management with the means to deal with the growing violence against staff is also detailed.

Aspects of combating terrorist activities in healthcare
Anthony Luizzo, Ben Scaglione
The keys to maintaining a terrorism-free workplace lies in the security administrator’s mastering of knowing how to capture terrorist threats before they wreak havoc on the institution and its surroundings, according to the authors, who provide in this article a wealth of sources to the administrator for obtaining such a mastery.

OSHA: focusing on healthcare’s continuing increase in workplace violence
Kevin Tuohey
Injuries to nurses, nursing assistants and other healthcare workers continue to be far more prevalent than in other industries and continue to grow in numbers. In this article, the author reviews new efforts to prevent and reduce workplace violence by OSHA and other agencies. He also describes in detail the activities of IAHSS in this area and makes recommendations about maximizing the expertise of healthcare security and safely.

Hospital settlement: OSHA spells out requirements for implementing a WPV program
In a settlement …. with Bergen Regional Medical Center (BRMC) researched in May 2017 and verified in September 2017, OSHA and one of the nation’s largest public hospitals have resolved litigation by reaching an agreement that requires the center to enhance its efforts to prevent violence in the workplace.

A Seattle Library Employee Was Stuck With a Needle. Should Branches Make Changes to Deal With the Opioid Epidemic?

Source: Erica C. Barnett, Seattle Magazine, March 8, 2018

The Seattle Public Library system and the King County Public Library system already take very different approaches to drug use and needle disposal in public restrooms.

Related:
Once It Was Overdue Books. Now Librarians Fight Overdoses.
Source: Annie Correal, New York Times, February 28, 2018

….The opioid epidemic is reshaping life in America, including at the local public library, where librarians are considering whether to carry naloxone to battle overdoses. At a time when the public is debating arming teachers, it is another example of an unlikely group being enlisted to fight a national crisis…..

Brockton Public Library making changes to cope with opioid crisis
Source: Jason Law, Boston 25 News, March 1, 2018

Public libraries are getting creative when it comes to dealing with the opioid crisis. The library director in Brockton says he’s taken steps to keep addicts out of his library. The bathrooms inside the Brockton Public Library will now be locked at all times. To get in, you need a key, which is kept by the reference desk…..

Librarians Learn How To Save Those Overdosing On Opioids
Source: CBS New York, March 1, 2018

….Librarians and other staff members are being trained on how to revive someone who’s overdosing. Matt Pfisterer is the director of the Middletown-Thrall Library in Middletown and he knows exactly where to find and how to use their Narcan kits…..

Lawmaker wants to bring anti-overdose medication to Michigan libraries
Source: Noah Fromson, WZZM13, February 18, 2018

A Michigan Senate bill would bring the fight the opioid crisis in public libraries.

Library system cuts hours, reduces purchases so county can spend more on opioid crisis
Source: Rick Lee, York Daily Record, February 7, 2018

York County’s free public library system is downsizing — trimming hours, employee schedules and the purchase of new releases — because of a $300,000 budget cut. That cut came in December when county commissioners diverted more resources to combat the heroin and opioid crisis that has gripped the city, county, state and nation…..

How The Everett Public Library Is ‘Not Turning A Blind Eye’ To The Opioid Crisis
Source: Jennifer Wing, KNKX, February 10, 2018

…..The two libraries that make up the Everett Public Library System have been quietly dealing with people who are addicted to heroin using these safe, public spaces to shoot up.  The Everett Library System is accepting this as the new normal.  But, at the same time, it is playing a larger role in getting people the help that they need…..

Opioid Crisis: Libraries, Resources, Context and Data
Source: WebJunction, August 17, 2017

Systematic review: What works to address obesity in nurses?

Source: M Kelly, J Wills, Occupational Medicine, Advance Articles, March 22, 2018
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Background: There is evidence that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among nurses is increasing. As well as the impact on health, the costs associated with obesity include workplace injury, lost productivity and sickness absence. Finding ways to address obesity in nurses may be a challenge because of the barriers they face in leading a healthy lifestyle.

Aims:
To identify the available evidence for interventions to address obesity in nurses. Methods Databases searched included CINAHL, SCOPUS (which encompasses the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), PsycINFO, MEDLINE and British Nursing Index. Ancillary searching of the grey literature was conducted for case studies of weight management interventions in National Health Service (NHS) settings. Inclusion criteria were studies involving nurses that reported on interventions addressing health behaviours that contribute to obesity and included at least one obesity-related outcome measure.

Results:
Eleven primary studies were found concerning lifestyle interventions for nurses. There was no strong evidence for any particular intervention to address obesity, although integrating interventions into nurses’ daily working lives may be important. Case studies from the grey literature showcased a range of interventions, but very few studies reported outcomes.

Conclusions:
The review demonstrates that there is insufficient good-quality evidence about successful interventions to address obesity in nurses. Evidence does indicate that interventions should be designed around the specific barriers nurses may face in leading a healthy lifestyle.

State of the Union

Source: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, Pathways, Special Issue, 2018

From the summary:
The Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality is pleased to present its fifth annual report examining the state of the union. In this year’s report, we provide a comprehensive assessment of gender inequality in eleven domains ranging from education to health, employment, earnings, poverty, sexual harassment, networks, and more. The report concludes with a discussion of the most promising sciencebased policies for reducing gender inequality at home and in the labor market.

Articles include:
Gender Identification
Aliya Saperstein
The traditional gender binary just doesn’t work. When respondents of a national survey were asked about their femininity and masculinity, 7 percent considered themselves equally feminine and masculine, and another 4 percent responded in ways that did not “match” their sex at birth (i.e., females who saw themselves as more masculine than feminine, or males who saw themselves as more feminine than masculine).

Education
Erin M. Fahle and Sean F. Reardon
Despite common beliefs to the contrary, male students do not consistently outperform female students in mathematics. It’s only in high school that the male advantage in mathematics surfaces. What’s going on?

Health
Mark Duggan and Valerie Scimeca
For women and men alike, life expectancy has stagnated for the last several years, primarily due to increases in drug poisoning deaths and in the suicide rate. The male-female life expectancy gap, which favors females, fell from 7.6 years in 1970 to 4.8 years in 2010, a reduction of more than one-third.

Employment
Melissa S. Kearney and Katharine G. Abraham
After rising steadily for many decades, the overall female employment rate has been falling since 2000. Why has it fallen? Are there straightforward policy fixes that could increase women’s employment?

Earnings
Emmanuel Saez
When gender differences in labor force participation, fringe benefits, and self-employment income are taken into account, women earn only 57 cents for each dollar earned by men.

Poverty
H. Luke Shaefer, Marybeth Mattingly, and Kathryn Edin
Are women more likely than men to be in deep poverty, official poverty, and near poverty? Yes, yes, and yes.

Safety Net
Linda M. Burton, Marybeth Mattingly, Juan Pedroza, and Whitney Welsh
Why do women use safety net programs more than men? A hint: It’s not just because they’re more likely to be eligible for them.

Occupational Segregation
Kim A. Weeden, Mary Newhart, and Dafna Gelbgiser
Nearly half of the women in the labor force would have to move to a different occupation to eliminate all occupational segregation by gender. This is a classic case of stalled change: If recent rates of change are extrapolated, it would take 330 years to reach full integration.

Discrimination
David S. Pedulla
A new science of gender discrimination is being built with audit studies and other experiments. A key result: Gender discrimination is more likely to emerge when the applicant’s commitment to work can be called into question or when an applicant is behaving in a gender-nonconforming way.

Workplace Sexual Harassment
Amy Blackstone, Heather McLaughlin, and Christopher Uggen
The workplace is rife with sexual harassment. By age 25 to 26, one in three women and one in seven men experience behavior at work that they define as sexual harassment.

Social Networks
Adina D. Sterling
Although men used to have more social ties than men, now the gender gap has reversed and women have the larger networks. But women still have fewer coworker ties than men … and coworker ties matter a lot.

Policy
Marianne Cooper and Shelley J. Correll
What are the most promising science-based policies for reducing gender inequality at home and in the labor market?

Changing schedules take a toll on medical interns

Source: Kara Gavin, Futurity, March 18, 2018

This year’s crop of graduating medical students just found out what hospital they’ve “matched” to for the residency training they’ll start this summer. A new study suggests the changing schedules they’ll have to endure as residents may take a heavy toll on sleep, physical activity, and mood. ….

Related:
Effects of Sleep, Physical Activity, and Shift Work on Daily Mood: a Prospective Mobile Monitoring Study of Medical Interns Authors Authors and affiliations
Source: David A. Kalmbach, Yu Fang, J. Todd Arnedt, Amy L. Cochran, Patricia J. Deldin, Adam I. Kaplin, Srijan Sen, Journal of General Internal Medicine, First Online: March 14, 2018

From the abstract:
Background:
Although short sleep, shift work, and physical inactivity are endemic to residency, a lack of objective, real-time information has limited our understanding of how these problems impact physician mental health. Objective To understand how the residency experience affects sleep, physical activity, and mood, and to understand the directional relationships among these variables.

Design:
A prospective longitudinal study. Subjects Thirty-three first-year residents (interns) provided data from 2 months pre-internship through the first 6 months of internship.

Main Measures:
Objective real-time assessment of daily sleep and physical activity was assessed through accelerometry-based wearable devices. Mood scaled from 1 to 10 was recorded daily using SMS technology. Average compliance rates prior to internship for mood, sleep, and physical activity were 77.4, 80.2, and 93.7%, and were 78.8, 53.0, and 79.9% during internship.

Key Results:
After beginning residency, interns lost an average of 2 h and 48 min of sleep per week (t = − 3.04, p < .01). Mood and physical activity decreased by 7.5% (t = − 3.67, p < .01) and 11.5% (t = − 3.15, p < .01), respectively. A bidirectional relationship emerged between sleep and mood during internship wherein short sleep augured worse mood the next day (b = .12, p < .001), which, in turn, presaged shorter sleep the next night (b = .06, p = .03). Importantly, the effect of short sleep on mood was twice as large as mood’s effect on sleep. Lastly, substantial shifts in sleep timing during internship (sleeping ≥ 3 h earlier or later than pre-internship patterns) led to shorter sleep (earlier: b = − .36, p < .01; later: b = − 1.75, p < .001) and poorer mood (earlier: b = − .41, p < .001; later: b = − .41, p < .001). Conclusions: Shift work, short sleep, and physical inactivity confer a challenging environment for physician mental health. Efforts to increase sleep opportunity through designing shift schedules to allow for adequate opportunity to resynchronize the circadian system and improving exercise compatibility of the work environment may improve mood in this depression-vulnerable population.

Assaults on Days of Campaign Rallies During the 2016 US Presidential Election

Source: Christopher N. Morrison, Benjamin Ukert, Aimee Palumbo, Beidi Dong, Sara Jacoby, Douglas, J. Wiebe, Epidemiology, Published Ahead-of-Print, Post Acceptance: March 12, 2018
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Aim. 
This study investigates whether assault frequency increased on days and in cities where candidates Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton held campaign rallies prior to the 2016 US Presidential election.

Method. 
We calculated city-level counts of police-reported assaults for 31 rallies for Donald Trump and 38 rallies for Hillary Clinton. Negative binomial models estimated the assault incidence on rally days (Day 0) relative to that on 8 control days for the same city (Days -28, -21, -14, -7, +7, +14, +21, and +28).

Results. 
Cities experienced an increase in assaults (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR]=1.12, 95%CI: 1.03-1.22) on the days of Donald Trump’s rallies, and no change in assaults on the days of Hillary Clinton’s rallies (IRR=1.00, 95%CI: 0.94-1.06).

Conclusion. 
Assaults increased on days when cities hosted Donald Trump’s rallies during the 2016 Presidential election campaign.