Category Archives: Education

SHEF — State Higher Education Finance FY15

Source: Andrew Carlson, Sophia Laderman, State Higher Education Executive Officers Association (SHEEO), April 2016

From the press release:
State and local governments provided nearly $91 billion in FY 2015 to support higher education — an increase of more than $ 4 billion from the FY 2014 level but still lower than the level that prevailed before the Great Recession. Forty states increased their support which, coupled with a small decline in enrollment, caused the average state and local support per student (adjusted for inflation) to increase 5.2% to $6,966. That level remains 15.3% below the $8,221 per student provided in FY 2008, before the Great Recession. In fact, appropriations per student remain lower in 45 states than they were then. But the FY 2015 increase in state and local support, as was the case in FY 2014, contributed to a slowing in the rate of growth of tuition income per student (which increased by 2.5% per student in real terms in FY 2015), bringing the share of the cost of education borne by students and their families down to 46.5%, its lowest level since 2011. (Tuition’s share of revenue remains substantially above the pre-Great Recession level of 35.8 %.) These are among the highlights of a report released today by the State Higher Education Executive Officers Association (SHEEO). The thirteenth annual State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) report provides a comprehensive review of state and local funding, tuition revenue, enrollment trends , and degrees for public higher education — which enrolls and educates about 70% of all students in American postsecondary education programs…..
Related:
Click here for interactive SHEF data
Unadjusted Nominal Data Set (XLS)
State-by-State Wave Charts (XLS)

Policymaker’s Guide to Pay It Forward

Source: Kelli Smith, John Gibson, John Burbank, Economic Opportunity Institute, [2016]

From the summary:
….If higher education is to remain a public good, state governments can no longer ask students and their families to shoulder an increasing share of its costs. Policymakers can accomplish this using a combination of state investments that reduce tuition, increase need-based financial aid, and promote innovative programs to ensure continued growth in access to college. Pay It Forward is one such innovative program.

Pay It Forward is a college financing system under which, instead of paying tuition, participants would make post-graduation income-based contributions for a set period. Contributions are deposited into a state trust fund that directs payments to the participating colleges and universities, and that can be designed to become self-sustaining within one generation. It is not a loan or grant program, nor is it a replacement for tuition reduction or need-based aid. It is a social insurance program for higher education that can dramatically reduce students’ uncertainty about their future debt burden and supplement existing programs to serve a broader spectrum of students.

What sets Pay It Forward apart from other higher education proposals is that it is a long-term solution that would generate an ongoing and revolving source of revenue – fueled by forward-funding by graduates – all while replenishing and sustaining itself. It would open access to higher education by reducing high debt barriers and make a college degree possible without financially crippling an entire generation….

The Great Training Robbery

Source: Michael Beer, Magnus Finnstrom, Derek Schrader, Harvard Business School Research Paper Series # 16-121, April 21, 2016

From the abstract:
In 2012 U.S. corporations spent $164.2 billion on training and education. Overwhelming evidence and experience shows, however, that most companies are unable to transfer employee learning into changes in individual and organization behavior or improved financial performance. Put simply, companies are not getting the return they expect on their investment in training and education. By investing in training that is not likely to yield a good return, senior executives and their HR professionals are complicit in what we have come to call the “great training robbery.”

Labor Education’s Evolving Forms and Expanding Applicability

Source: Labor Studies Journal, Vol. 41 no. 1, March 2016

From the introduction:
Labor education programs exist across the country. Some are parts of certificate- or degree-granting programs, others are sponsored and presented by unions, and still others are ad hoc community initiatives to address specific crises or needs. Other worker-education efforts are finding new life through community groups and activist initiatives. Labor education is an important component of the labor movement. It creates memberships that are engaged with what their unions are doing and are knowledgeable about what the labor movement has done and is attempting to do. Labor education can nurture the union leaders of tomorrow and build membership ranks that can withstand ideological, financial, and political attacks on organized labor. It also can mobilize membership to achieve a range of social justice goals, not only bettering themselves but also improving the world around them.

At the 2015 United Association for Labor Education (UALE) Conference, three panels of papers addressed this topic. This special issue of Labor Studies Journal (LSJ) presents five papers from these panels—four articles as well as an additional Innovations piece that discusses how one educator used community theater to transform labor education. The authors represent a range of disciplines—labor studies, political science, sociology, labor education, and crime and justice studies—and come from both sides of the Canadian/U.S. border. As they discuss labor education in a range of contexts—union halls, colleges and universities, worker institutes, summer schools, and community theater—the writers in this special issue address critical questions in understanding where labor education has been, what challenges remain, and how labor education might evolve in the future. ….

Articles include:
Twenty-First-Century Workers’ Education in North America: The Defeat of the Left or a Revitalized Class Pedagogy?
Source: Corey Dolgon, Reuben Roth, Labor Studies Journal, Vol. 41 no. 1, March 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
The main response (Mantsios 2015) to neoliberalism and the marginalization of labor studies in higher education has been the call for a “new” labor college—one that integrates “workforce development” and liberal arts, yet separates worker education from its working-class roots. This article interrogates the state of worker education and the impact of neoliberalism on various civic engagement efforts at colleges and universities. The authors argue for a critical reevaluation of workers’ education and labor studies programs, calling for organized workers to retake control of such projects to avoid the deradicalization of class politics now ascendant in neoliberal institutions.

Blue-Collar Classroom: From the Individual to the Collective
Source: Sharon Szymanski, Richard Wells, Labor Studies Journal, Vol. 41 no. 1, March 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
This article examines how a labor studies program, most of whose students come from unions in the building trades, wrestles with a deeply rooted perception about the relationship between an individual’s skill and her wages. Aspects of tradition and experience in the unionized building trades validate it, and public discourse today sees it as a basic economic truth. Other aspects of building trades’ tradition and experience, as well as current mobilizations by low-wage service workers, show that collective power determines wages and enables a conversation about the social wage that decouples individual skill from wage levels.

Twenty-First-Century Workers’ Education in North America: The Defeat of the Left or a Revitalized Class Pedagogy?
Source: Corey Dolgon, Reuben Roth, Labor Studies Journal, Vol. 41 no. 1, March 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
The main response (Mantsios 2015) to neoliberalism and the marginalization of labor studies in higher education has been the call for a “new” labor college—one that integrates “workforce development” and liberal arts, yet separates worker education from its working-class roots. This article interrogates the state of worker education and the impact of neoliberalism on various civic engagement efforts at colleges and universities. The authors argue for a critical reevaluation of workers’ education and labor studies programs, calling for organized workers to retake control of such projects to avoid the deradicalization of class politics now ascendant in neoliberal institutions.

Black Lives Matter and Bridge Building Labor Education for a “New Jim Crow” Era
Source: Eric D. Larson, Labor Studies Journal, Vol. 41 no. 1, March 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
This article uses labor history and black history to highlight how labor education can be a crucial tool for unions to respond to the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement in a way that supports and respects its main demands. It suggests that unions are unlikely to answer the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organization’s (AFL-CIO) call for the labor movement to be “partners, allies, and fellow community members” of the BLM movement unless they recognize the structural nature of contemporary “colorblind racism” and confront the root causes of divergent attitudes about the fairness of the criminal justice system. Such causes include the long-standing associations of blackness with criminality and whiteness with innocence, which have long justified the punishment of black workers and the control of all U.S. workers. This article highlights the structural violence of mass incarceration, the spectacular violence of police murder, the symbolic violence of anti-black cultural production, and the sexual violence directed at black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) blacks. Building on black feminist theory, it argues that labor education that foregrounds the interwoven histories of race and crime, and examines how racism works through class, gender, and other kinds of hierarchies, could serve to capacitate grassroots bridge-builders inside unions. The article suggests that the history of domestic work could be a particularly valuable way for labor educators to discuss the fundamental messages of the Movement for Black Lives.

Labor Education and Leadership Development for Union Women: Assessing the Past, Building for the Future
Source: Emily E. LB. Twarog, Jennifer Sherer, Brigid O’Farrell, Cheryl Coney, Labor Studies Journal, Vol. 41 no. 1, March 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
What roles should women’s labor education play in the twenty-first-century labor movement? This question sparked a series of research, collaboration, and long-range planning activities undertaken by the Union Women’s Labor Education Project starting in 2013. This article builds on work undertaken to date by the Union Women’s Labor Education Project (in collaboration with the Women’s Caucus of the United Association of Labor Educator [UALE] and the Berger-Marks Foundation), presenting a new analysis of relationships among women’s labor education, leadership development, and movement building, with a particular focus on regional UALE women’s summer schools as a case study.

Five evils: Multidimensional poverty and race in America

Source: Richard Reeves, Edward Rodrigue, and Elizabeth Kneebone,Brookings Institution, April 2016

From the summary:
Poverty is about a lack of money, but it’s not only about that. As a lived experience, poverty is also characterized by ill health, insecurity, discomfort, isolation, and more. To put it another way: Poverty is multidimensional, and its dimensions often cluster together to intensify the negative effects of being poor.

In a new paper, Richard Reeves, Edward Rodrigue, and Elizabeth Kneebone examine the “clustering” of five dimensions of poverty—household income, education, concentrated spatial poverty, health insurance, and employment—within a large sample of the American population.

They find that almost 50 percent of the adult population suffers from at least one of the five disadvantages and that almost 25 percent have two or more disadvantages. But importantly, black and Hispanic adults with one disadvantage are more likely than their white peers to have more than one—or many—disadvantages.
Related:
Interactive

Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States — 2016 Historical Trend Report

Source: Margaret Cahalan, Laura Perna, Mika Yamashita, Roman Ruiz, Khadish Franklin, Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, 2016

From the summary:
Report Shows Family Income is a Major Indicator in College Entrance, Selection, Graduation

On April 19, 2016, the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education held an event at the National Press Club to announce the release of the Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United State — 2016 Historical Trend Report. The report, by the Pell Institute and the University of Pennsylvania’s Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy examines trends in post-secondary enrollment in the U.S. by family income, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status. It uses data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Beginning Postsecondary Study, the NCES high school longitudinal studies, and other public sources.

The report shows that while bachelor’s degree attainment rates have increased for all family income quartiles, the distribution of bachelor’s degree attainment between family income levels has remained relatively constant since 1970. The top two family income quartiles together accounted for 72 percent of the total bachelor’s degrees attained in 1970 and 77 percent of the bachelor’s degrees in 2014. It indicates that students from higher and lower income quartiles enroll in different types of colleges and universities with varying rates of college success.

Data on certifications and licenses

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 15, 2016

From the blog post:
To data nerds like us at BLS and many of our data users, there’s little more satisfying than releasing an important set of new, needed information. Today is such a day!

When applying for a job, people often point to their education to show they have the necessary skills to do the job. But many jobs also require professional certifications or licenses. While BLS has published statistics on labor force status by level of education for a long time, nondegree credentials, such as professional certifications or licenses, have received less attention in national surveys. That is, until today—BLS now has a stat for that, too!

Professional certifications and licenses are nondegree credentials that show a person has the skill or knowledge needed to do a specific job. These include credentials like commercial driver’s licenses, teaching licenses, medical licenses, information technology certifications, and many others. They are important. Just take a moment to think about yourself and your family members. Chances are that many of you have such credentials. Indeed, three of my four siblings do: as an accountant, a nurse, and a hairdresser.

To learn more about who has professional certifications and licenses and how they fare in the labor market, we’ve added new questions to the Current Population Survey. That’s the monthly survey of about 60,000 households that we use to measure the U.S. labor force and unemployment rate.

From these new data, we find that 25.5 percent of employed people held a currently active certification or license in 2015.

These credentials are more common in certain occupations. For example, a high proportion of workers in the healthcare field had certifications or licenses.

We also find that employed people with a college degree are more likely to have professional certifications and licenses than workers with less formal education…..

Projections of Education Statistics to 2023

Source: William J Hussar, National Center for Education Statistics and Tabitha M. Bailey, National Center for Education Statistics, NCES 2015073, April 2016

From the abstract:
This publication provides projections for key education statistics. It includes statistics on enrollment, graduates, teachers, and expenditures in elementary and secondary schools, and enrollment and earned degrees conferred expenditures of degree-granting institutions. For the Nation, the tables, figures, and text contain data on enrollment, teachers, graduates, and expenditures for the past 14 years and projections to the year 2023. For the 50 States and the District of Columbia, the tables, figures, and text contain data on projections of public elementary and secondary enrollment and public high school graduates to the year 2023. In addition, the report includes a methodology section describing models and assumptions used to develop national and state-level projections.

Why America’s Schools Have A Money Problem

Source: Cory Turner, Reema Khrais, Tim Lloyd, Alexandra Olgin, Laura Isensee, Becky Vevea, Dan Carsen, NPR, Morning Edition, April 18, 2016

How much money a school can spend on its students still depends, in large part, on local property taxes. And many states aren’t doing much to level the field for poor kids. ….

Related:
About The ‘School Money’ Project
School Money is a nationwide collaboration between NPR’s Ed Team and 20 member station reporters exploring how states pay for their public schools and why many are failing to meet the needs of their most vulnerable students. This story is Part 1 of 3. Next week, we ask: Does money matter? …

Skill-Biased Technical Change and the Cost of Higher Education

Source: John Bailey Jones, Fang Yang, Journal of Labor Economics, Ahead of Print, April 11, 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
We document the growth in higher education costs and tuition over the past 50 years. To explain these trends, we develop a general equilibrium model with skill- and sector-biased technical change. Finding the model’s parameters through a combination of estimation and calibration, we show that it can explain the rise in college costs between 1961 and 2009, along with the increase in college attainment and the change in the relative earnings of college graduates. The model predicts that if college costs had ceased to grow after 1961, enrollment in 2010 would have been 3%–6% higher.