Category Archives: Education

Early Childhood Workforce Index

Source: Marcy Whitebook, Caitlin McLean and Lea J.E. Austin, University of California – Berkeley, Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, July 2016

From the abstract:
The Early Childhood Workforce Index represents the first effort to establish a baseline description of early childhood employment conditions and policies in every state and to track progress on a state-by-state basis to improve early childhood jobs. Providing states with periodic appraisals of their efforts, based on measurable status and policy indicators, is aimed at encouraging states to step up their efforts to address these persistent workforce challenges and at supporting related advocacy efforts. It is our hope that expanded and consistent focus on early childhood jobs will, in turn, generate refined strategies and encourage the incubation and testing of sustainable policies to attend to compensation and other issues that have gone largely unaddressed.
Related:
Executive Summary

Selected tables:
Median Hourly Wages by Occupation and State, 2015
Median Hourly Wages by Occupation and State, 2010-2015
Family Participation in Public Support Programs for Child Care Workers by State

America’s Divided Recovery: College Haves and Have-Nots

Source: Anthony P. Carnevale, Tamara Jayasundera, Artem Gulish, Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce, 2016

From the summary:
Over 95 percent of jobs created during the recovery have gone to workers with at least some college education, while those with a high school diploma or less are being left behind. America’s Divided Recovery: College Haves and Have-Nots reveals that those with at least some college education have captured 11.5 million of the 11.6 million jobs created during the recovery. While jobs are back, they are not the same jobs lost during the recession. The Great Recession decimated low-skill blue-collar and clerical jobs, whereas the recovery added primarily high-skill managerial and professional jobs.

Key Findings:
– Graduate degree holders gained 3.8 million jobs, Bachelor’s degree holders gained 4.6 million jobs, and Associate’s degree holders gained 3.1 million jobs, compared to workers with a high school diploma or less, who added only 80,000 jobs.
– Workers with at least some postsecondary education now make up 65 percent of the total employment. Bachelor’s degree. holders now earn 57 percent of all wages.
Among industries, consulting and business services added the largest number of jobs in the recovery (2.5 million).
– Management added the largest number of jobs of any occupation since the recession began (1.6 million), and healthcare professional and technical occupations added the second most jobs (1.5 million)

Manufacturing Gender Inequality in the New Economy: High School Training for Work in Blue-Collar Communities

Source: April Sutton, Amanda Bosky, Chandra Muller, American Sociological Review, Published online before print June 29, 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women’s greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood. Although high school training in blue-collar communities reduced both men’s and women’s odds of four-year college enrollment, it had gender-divergent labor market consequences. Men in blue-collar communities took more blue-collar courses, had higher rates of blue-collar employment, and earned similar wages relative to otherwise comparable men from non-blue-collar communities. Women were less likely to work and to be employed in professional occupations, and they suffered severe wage penalties relative to their male peers and women from non-blue-collar communities. These relationships were due partly to high schools in blue-collar communities offering more blue-collar and fewer advanced college-preparatory courses. This curricular tradeoff may benefit men, but it appears to disadvantage women.

Indicators of Job Satisfaction of Home Healthcare Nurses in the San Francisco Bay Area of California

Source: Xia Li, Daryl Canham, Sharon Wahl, Home Healthcare Now, Volume 34 Issue 6, June 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that provide job satisfaction for home healthcare nurses and to determine if the nurses’ educational level makes a difference in job satisfaction. Data were collected using Ellenbecker’s (2004) 21-item Home Healthcare Nurses Job Satisfaction Scale. The study results indicated the majority of this population of home healthcare nurses was satisfied on all items, except in having the power to change agency policy. Educational level made no significant difference in job satisfaction. Recommendations include encouraging agencies to include clinicians in policy decision-making and management of patient care. Nursing education programs should ensure nurses graduate with the skills necessary for policy development and to make decisions that positively impact patient care.

It Doesn’t Pay To Be An Early-Childhood Teacher

Source: Elissa Nadworny, NPR, June 14, 2016

Why would she teach preschool when she could make a heck of a lot more money teaching kindergarten? It’s a question I’ve heard over and over again reporting on education. In some places, we pay early childhood teachers less than fast-food workers, less than tree trimmers. As a country, we’ve acknowledged the importance of early learning and yet, when you look at what we pay those educators, it doesn’t add up.
Related:
Troubling Pay Gap for Early Childhood Teachers
Source: U.S. Department of Education, Fact Sheet, June 14, 2016

The Effect of Breakfast in the Classroom on Obesity and Academic Performance: Evidence from New York City

Source: Sean P. Corcoran, Brian Elbel and Amy Ellen Schwartz, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 35, Issue 3, Summer 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Participation in the federally subsidized school breakfast program often falls well below its lunchtime counterpart. To increase take-up, many districts have implemented Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC), offering breakfast directly to students at the start of the school day. Beyond increasing participation, advocates claim BIC improves academic performance, attendance, and engagement. Others caution BIC has deleterious effects on child weight. We use the implementation of BIC in New York City (NYC) to estimate its impact on meals program participation, body mass index (BMI), achievement, and attendance. While we find large effects on participation, our findings provide no evidence of hoped-for gains in academic performance, or of feared increases in obesity. The policy case for BIC will depend upon reductions in hunger and food insecurity for disadvantaged children, or its longer-term effects.

Public Education Finances: 2014

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Educational Finance Branch, Economic Reimbursable Surveys Division Reports, G14-ASPE, June 2016

From the press release:
Elementary and secondary education revenue are up 3.3 percent nationally, from 2013, amounting to $617.6 billion in fiscal year 2014, according to a report released today by the U.S. Census Bureau….

Per pupil spending for the nation was $11,009, a 2.7 percent increase from 2013. This was the largest increase in per pupil spending since 2008 when there was a 6.1 percent increase from the year prior. Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, New York spent the highest per pupil, at $20,610, while Utah came in the lowest at $6,500.

Per pupil spending includes gross school system expenditure for instruction, support services and noninstructional functions including direct expenditure for salaries, employee benefits, student transportation, building maintenance, purchased property and other services and supplies.

Following New York, the highest spending per pupil in 2014 was in the District of Columbia at $18,485, Alaska at $18,416, New Jersey at $17,907 and Connecticut at $17,745.

After Utah, the states spending the least per pupil were Idaho at $6,621, Arizona at $7,528, Oklahoma at $7,829 and Mississippi at $8,263.

Of the 100 largest school systems by enrollment, Maryland had four of the 10 public school districts with the highest current spending per pupil. This marks the seventh year in a row Maryland has had four schools in the top 10 in this category. The top five school districts for per pupil spending were Boston City Schools at $21,567, New York City School District at $21,154, Anchorage School District in Alaska at $15,596, Baltimore City Schools in Maryland at $15,564 and Howard County Schools in Maryland at $15,358.

The findings come from the Public Education Finances: 2014 report, which provides figures on revenues, expenditures, debt and assets (cash and security holdings) for the nation’s elementary and secondary public school systems. The report and tables, released annually, include detailed statistics on spending – such as instruction, student transportation, salaries and employee benefits – at the national, state and school district levels.

The Condition of Education 2016

Source: Grace Kena, William Hussar, Joel McFarland, Cristobal de Brey, Lauren Musu-Gillette, Xiaolei Wang, Jijun Zhang, Amy Rathbun, Sidney Wilkinson-Flicker, Melissa Diliberti, Amy Barmer, Farrah Bullock Mann, Erin Dunlop Velez, National Center for Education Statistics, NCES 2016144, May 2016

From the summary:
NCES has a mandate to report to Congress on the condition of education by June 1 of each year. The Condition of Education 2016 summarizes important developments and trends in education using the latest available data. The 2016 report presents 43 key indicators on the status and condition of education and are grouped under four main areas: (1) population characteristics, (2) participation in education, (3) elementary and secondary education, and (4) postsecondary education. Also included in the report are 3 Spotlight indicators that provide a more in-depth look at some of the data.
Related:
At A Glance
Highlights

Arbitrary Funding – How the Supreme Court Upheld Education Funding Inequity

Source: EdBuild blog, Power in Numbers, May 22, 2016

In this third installment of Power in Numbers, EdBuild finds that similar school districts across the country spend radically different amounts on their students, even when differences in local costs are taken into account, revealing systemic and unjustifiable inequities in the way we fund our schools.

Related:
Resource Inequality
Source: EdBuild blog, Power in Numbers, May 3, 2016

In our second installment of Power in Numbers, we use cost-adjusted revenue to look deeper at whether each state is meeting their responsibility to provide sufficient funding for schooling for all children. We redefine state-level funding inequity and discuss how our current funding systems maintain uneven access to education.

Cost-Adjusted Revenue
Source: EdBuild blog, Power in Numbers, March 10, 2016

Our new series, Power in Numbers, focuses on the inequities brought about by our convoluted state funding systems. We focus on per-pupil funding for states and school districts across the country in order to understand and compare the data at the most granular level.

The Requirements of Jobs: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey

Source: Maury Gittleman, Kristen A. Monaco, Nicole Nestoriak, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), NBER Working Paper No. w22218, May 2016

From the abstract:
The Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS) is a new survey at the Bureau of Labor Statistics which collects data on the educational, cognitive, and physical requirements of jobs, as well as the environmental conditions in which the work is performed. Using pre-production data, we provide estimates of a subset of elements by broad industry and occupation and examine the relationship between the cognitive elements and measures of education and training. We exploit the overlap between ORS and the National Compensation Survey to estimate models of the returns to different occupational requirements. Finally, we examine the relationship between occupational requirements and occupational safety measures and outline potential research uses of the Occupational Requirements Survey.