Category Archives: Education

2015 State Preschool Yearbook

Source: W. Steven Barnett, Allison H. Friedman-Krauss, Rebecca Gomez, Michelle Horowitz, G.G. Weisenfeld, Kirsty Clarke Brown, James H. Squires, National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER), 2016

From the summary:
The 2015 State of Preschool Yearbook is the newest edition of our annual report profiling state-funded prekindergarten programs in the United States. This latest Yearbook presents data on state-funded prekindergarten during the 2014-2015 school year as well as documenting more than a decade of change in state pre-K since the first Yearbook collected data on the 2001-2002 school year. The 2015 Yearbook profiles 57 state-funded pre-K programs in 42 states plus the District of Columbia and also provides narrative information on early education efforts in the 8 states and the U.S. territories that do not provide state-funded pre-K. Nationally, the 2014-2015 school year showed continues improvement in state funded pre-K with larger increases in enrollment, spending, spending per child, and quality standards than the previous year. State funded pre-K served almost 1.4 million children in 2014-2015, an increase of 37,167 children from the previous year. State spending topped $6.2 billion, an increase of over $553 million, although two-thirds of this increase can be attributed to New York. Spending per child saw the largest increase in a decade, reaching $4,489 per child. Six programs in five states met new quality standards benchmarks and two new states, West Virginia and Mississippi, joined the group of states meeting all 10 quality standards benchmarks. However, progress has been unequal and uneven with some states taking large steps forward and other states moving backward. At the recent rate of progress it will take decades to serve even 50% of 4-year-olds in state pre-K. Government at every level will need to redouble their efforts and move forward.

The 2015 Yearbook is organized into three major sections. The first section offers a summary of the data and describes national trends in enrollment, quality standards, and spending for state-funded preschool. This year, a special supplemental section on state pre-K policies to support Dual Language Learners and the Workforce is also included. The second section presents detailed profiles outlining each state’s policies with respect to preschool access, quality standards, and resources for the 2014-2015 year. A description of our methodology follows the state profiles, and the last section of the report contains appendices. The appendices include tables that provide the complete 2014-2015 survey data obtained from every state, as well as Head Start, child care, U.S. Census, and special education data. This year, additional appendices are included that show the complete supplemental survey data on Dual Language Learners and the workforce.
Executive Summary
Table of Contents
State Data

Collective Impact in Workforce Development: A Working Paper – Perspectives From the Field

Source: Annie E. Casey Foundation, March 2016

From the abstract:
This working paper explores the concept of collective impact in the workforce development field — its successes, limitations and potential for benefiting prospective employees and business alike. Drawing from interviews with experts, this report offers several examples of multisector collaboration and recommendations for implementing such strategies for funders, policymakers and organizations focused on employment and training.

In This Report, You’ll Learn
1 Why it’s difficult to define collective impact strategies across workforce sectors.
2 How goals should be set for collective impact in workforce development.
3 How public policy affects workforce development and collaboration.
4 What limits the success of collective impact strategies in the workforce development field.
5 The collective impact framework’s most significant contributions to workforce development.
Getting Systems in Sync: Leveraging Collective Impact Strategies to Connect People With Jobs
Source: Annie E. Casey Foundation blog, May 14, 2016

Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in 2015-16; Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2014-15; and 12-Month Enrollment: 2014-15: First Look (Preliminary Data)

Source: Scott A. Ginder, Janice E. Kelly-Reid, Farrah B. Mann, National Center for Education Statistics, Publication#: NCES 2016112, July 2016

From the abstract:
This First Look report is a preliminary report of the data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2015 collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2015-16 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, and data on 12-Month Enrollment for the 2014-15 academic year.

The Long-Run Economic Impact of an Institution of Higher Education: Estimating the Human Capital Contribution

Source: Tom Johansen, Kathleen Arano, Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 30 no. 3, August 2016
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
One of the main contributions of higher education institutions is human capital. In the context of regional universities, their primary impact can be measured through the future income stream of alumni who remain in the local area for work. This constitutes a long-run impact and a substantial part of the overall economic impact of an institution to the local, regional, and national economies. This study provides an important contribution to the existing literature by developing a methodology that takes into account the counterfactual, allowing for the more precise definition of economic impact. The methodology is applied to a public regional university.

The Scariest Student Loan Number

Source: Derek Thompson, The Atlantic, July 19, 2016

Some focus on the largest figures, like total student debt ($1.3 trillion) and average debt ($30,000.) So why is the most dangerous student loan number less than $5,000? ….

…..Loans of $10,000 account for two-thirds of all defaults. This is particularly tragic, because these debt-without-degree adults chased the American dream into a dead end. Almost all of the evidence available to economists suggests that college graduates are more likely to be employed and make more money than non-grads…..

Investing in Higher Education: Benefits, Challenges and the State of Student Debt
Source: White House Council of Economic Advisers, July 2016

Higher education is one of the most important investments individuals can make for themselves and for our country. Many students access student loans to help finance their education, and last year federal student loans helped 9 million Americans to make that investment in their futures. Typically, that investment pays off, with bachelor’s degree recipients earning $1 million more in their lifetime and associate’s degree recipients earning $360,000 more, compared to high school graduates. Society also benefits from these investments through such mechanisms as higher tax revenues, improvements in health, higher rates of volunteering and voting, and lower levels of criminal behavior.

At the same time too many Americans feel that college may be financially out of reach and are concerned about rising student loan debt. Student loan debt can be especially burdensome for those who do not graduate or who attend schools that do not deliver a quality education. However, unmanageable debt is not the only issue facing current and former students. Some individuals who could benefit from a high quality postsecondary education do not apply and enroll in college, under-investing in education and shortchanging their future…..

When Employers Pay Student Loans, Those Who Most Need Help Are Left Out

Source: Gillian B. White, The Atlantic, July 19, 2016

Companies are providing debt assistance to their employees—a nice, and rarefied, perk. …. The benefits tend to come in one of three forms: tuition assistance (which pays for school directly for employees who are currently enrolled), student-loan payment assistance (which helps graduates pay off their existing loans), and consolidation and refinancing opportunities. That last tool is a newer and less common perk. Refinancing can make a huge difference for those with significant debt; by lowering interest rates it can drastically reduce the total amount of money paid. …..

Executive Compensation at Private and Public Colleges

Source: Dan Bauman and Brian O’Leary, Chronicle of Higher Education, July 17, 2016

The Chronicle’s executive-compensation package includes data on more than 1,200 chief executives at nearly 600 private colleges from 2008-13 and 250 public universities and systems from 2010-15. Updated in July, 2016, with 2014-15 public college data.

50-State Comparison: K-3 Quality

Source: Alyssa Auck, Education Commission of the States, July 18, 2016

Education Commission of the States has researched K-3 Quality policies in all states to provide this comprehensive resource. Click on the questions below for 50-state comparisons showing how all states approach specific K-3 Quality policies. Or, choose to view a specific state’s approach by going to the individual state profiles page.

Key takeaways:
– Eighteen states plus D.C. provide guidance for the pre-K to kindergarten transition process. This guidance often includes written transition plans, family engagement, teacher/provider meetings and assessment data linkages.
– Some form of teacher preparation and/or professional development in reading is required for educators in K-3 in at least 37 states. Many of these requirements include training on reading instruction, using reading assessment results and providing interventions.
– Twenty-one states plus D.C. require some level of parental involvement in the promotion/retention process.
– Thirty-six states plus D.C. emphasize social-emotional learning in grades K-3 in statute, rules or regulations. Usually, social-emotional learning is emphasized in kindergarten entrance assessments, school readiness definitions, and/or teacher training requirements.

Trends in College Pricing 2015

Source: The College Board, 2015

From the summary:
Trends in College Pricing provides information on changes over time in undergraduate tuition and fees, room and board, and other estimated expenses related to attending colleges and universities. The report, which includes data through 2015-16 from the College Board’s Annual Survey of Colleges, reveals the wide variation in prices charged by institutions of different types and in different parts of the country. Of particular importance is the focus on the net prices students actually pay after taking grant aid into consideration. Data on institutional revenues and expenditures and on changing enrollment patterns over time supplement the data on prices to provide a clearer picture of the circumstances of students and the institutions in which they study.
Download Data in Excel
Download Presentation

Trends in State and Local Expenditures on Corrections and Education

Source: U.S. Department of Education, July 2016

From the press release:
State and local spending on prisons and jails has increased at triple the rate of funding for public education for preschool through grade P-12 education in the last three decades, a new analysis by the U.S. Department of Education found.

Released today, the report, Trends in State and Local Expenditures on Corrections and Education, notes that even when population changes are factored in, 23 states increased per capita spending on corrections at more than double the rate of increases in per-pupil P-12 spending. Seven states—Idaho, Michigan, Montana, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, and West Virginia—increased their corrections budgets more than five times as fast as they did their allocations for P-12 public education. The report also paints a particularly stark picture of higher education spending across the country at a time when postsecondary education matters more than ever. Since 1990, state and local spending on higher education has been largely flat while spending on corrections has increased 89 percent….

….Key findings from the report include:
– Over the past three decades, between 1979–80 and 2012–13, state and local expenditures for P–12 education doubled from $258 to $534 billion, while total state and local expenditures for corrections quadrupled from $17 to $71 billion.
– All states had lower expenditure growth rates for P-12 education than for corrections, and in the majority of the states, the rate of increase for corrections spending was more than 100 percentage points higher than the growth rate for education spending.
– Even when adjusted for population changes, growth in corrections expenditures outpaced P-12 expenditures in all but two states (New Hampshire and Massachusetts).
– Over the roughly two decades, between 1989–1990 and 2012–2013, state and local appropriations for public colleges and universities remained flat, while funding for corrections increased by nearly 90 percent.
– On average, state and local higher education funding per full-time equivalent student fell by 28 percent, while per capita spending on corrections increased by 44 percent…..