Category Archives: Education

Are There Hidden Costs Associated With Conducting Layoffs? The Impact of Reduction‐in‐Force and Layoff Notices on Teacher Effectiveness

Source: Katharine O. Strunk, Dan Goldhaber, David S. Knight, Nate Brown, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Early View, First published: July 5, 2018
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Few studies examine employee responses to layoff‐induced unemployment risk; none that we know of quantify the impact of job insecurity on individual employee productivity. Using data from the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and Washington State during the Great Recession, we provide the first evidence about the impact of the layoff process on teacher productivity. In both sites we find that teachers impacted by the layoff process are less productive than those who do not face layoff‐induced job threat. LAUSD teachers who are laid off and then rehired to return to the district are less productive in the two years following the layoff. Washington teachers who are given a reduction‐in‐force (RIF) notice and are then not laid off have reduced effectiveness in the year of the RIF. We argue that these results are likely driven by impacts of the layoff process on teachers’ job commitment and present evidence to rule out alternate explanations.

Public K-12 school districts – Oklahoma – State’s top court rejects challenge to taxes for teacher pay increases, a credit positive

Source: Adebola Kushimo, Roger S Brown, Alexandra S. Parker, Moody’s, Sector Comment, June 27, 2018
(subscription required)

On June 22, the Oklahoma (Aa2 negative) Supreme Court rejected an effort to nullify a legislative package that increases state taxes to provide teachers with a pay raise. The court refused to permit a referendum that would have given voters a chance to block the tax increases, which include tax hikes on gasoline and oil production. The ruling is credit positive for school districts because it preserves state funding for the teacher pay increases, which came as teachers threatened to strike earlier this year and eventually did. The activists opposing the tax increases could still mount another effort to hold a referendum, hoping voters will overturn the tax hikes. The court noted that they have until July 18 to submit a new list of signatures that could lead to a November vote…..

Higher education – US – Medians – Public university median revenue growth falls for second year

Source: Jared Brewster, Susan I Fitzgerald, Kendra M. Smith, Cassandra Golden, Moody’s, Sector In-Depth, June 28, 2018
(subscription required)

For the second consecutive year, median public university revenue growth declined, falling below 3% and trailing expense growth for the first time since fiscal 2014, according to our fiscal 2017 medians. Nearly 25% of public universities reported declining revenue and more than 60% reported revenue growth below higher education inflation. Revenue growth will remain muted as public universities face tuition affordability concerns and ongoing state funding constraints, putting continued pressure on universities to curtail expense growth to maintain margins.

State takeovers of schools are about political power, not school improvement

Source: Domingo Morel, The Conversation, July 3, 2018

When states take over local school districts – like they’ve done or are trying to do in Kentucky, Georgia and Mississippi – school improvement is typically the stated objective.

Although the research on the effects of state takeovers on academic outcomes is mixed, takeovers often have devastating political and economic implications for black communities. As states increasingly attempt to take over school districts in major Southern cities, it’s worth exploring whether school improvement is the real purpose, or whether political motives are at play.

I raise this issue as the author of the first systematic study of state takeovers of local school districts. I am also a researcher who focuses racial and ethnic politics, urban politics, education politics and public policy…..

How Does Last-Dollar Financial Aid Affect First-Year Student Outcomes? Evidence from the Bridging the Gap Study

Source: Keith Wardrip, Eileen Divringi, and Kyle DeMaria, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Community Development and Regional Outreach, May 2018

This report examines the early impacts of a financial aid program that reduces or eliminates tuition and campus fee costs for lower- and middle-income New Jersey residents. The program boosted enrollment among lower-income students, improved students’ perception of college affordability, and reduced student financial stress. However, it is unclear whether first-year improvements in academic performance are attributable to the program.

Investing in Single Mothers’ Higher Education: Costs and Benefits to Individuals, Families, and Society

Source: Barbara Gault, Jessica Milli, Lindsey Reichlin Cruse, Institute for Women’s Policy Research, #C469, June 2018

From the summary:
Investing in Single Mothers’ Higher Education: Costs and Benefits to Individuals, Families, and Society Postsecondary education is a reliable pathway to economic security and is increasingly important to securing family-sustaining employment. For single mother families, who make up a growing share of U.S. families, and who are especially likely to live in poverty, college attainment is a game changer for improving family well-being and meeting the demands of a changing economy. College credentials are associated with a host of positive outcomes, including increased earnings, higher rates of employment, improved health, increased civic engagement, and improved outcomes among the children of college graduates.

Certificates in Oregon: A Model for Workers to Jump-Start or Reboot Careers

Source: Anthony P. Carnevale Neil Ridley Megan L. Fasules, Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce, 2018

From the press release:
Certificate recipients in Oregon ages 29 or younger reap sizable earnings gains, in some cases more than doubling their pay, as they build their skills and enter the workforce, according to a new analysis of community college programs in the state. The Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce (Georgetown Center) report, Certificates in Oregon: A Model for Workers to Jump-Start or Reboot Careers, highlights the role of certificates for people seeking to enter the labor market, an issue that has drawn increasing attention from policymakers in Washington, DC and across the nation.

The new analysis is based on state-level data that sheds light on their labor market value by field of study and their impact on both college-age students entering the labor market and adults established in the workforce. It also shows the importance of major national and state investments in data systems that have allowed states like Oregon to track the earnings returns of particular credentials.

Postsecondary Enrollment Before, During, and Since the Great Recessionc

Source: Erik Schmidt, U.S. Census Bureau, Report Number: P20-580, April 2018

From the abstract:
Education is highly valued in the United States as a means to acquire skills and experience that allow individuals to realize greater earnings over the course of their working lives. The value placed on education is evidenced by the fact that 89 percent of people 25 years and older have completed high school, and 60 percent have studied beyond the high school level. The value placed on education is also seen in the increase in college enrollment over time, from 2.4 million students in 1955 to 19.1 million students in 2015. While enrollment has increased over the long run, enrollment has increased and decreased within this long-term increase. This report provides an overview of postsecondary enrollment during one of these periods, covering the years preceding and since the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, using data collected in the Current Population Survey (CPS). It examines the postsecondary enrollment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics, such as age, sex, and race and Hispanic origin.

There’s a growing need for child-care centers on college campuses

Source: Jillian Berman, MarketWatch, June 5, 2018

The fate of thousands of college students— and their kids—hangs in the balance.

…. Across the country, campus child-care programs, like the one Preciado relies on, are eagerly waiting to see whether they’ll be able to afford to maintain their services or even expand them. Earlier this year, Congress authorized an increase in funding to the Child Care Access Means Parents in School (CCAMPIS) program, which supports efforts by colleges to help low-income student parents afford child care. But it still remains unclear which of the many campus child-care programs across the country will get the new funds and how that will be decided. ….

50-State Comparison: State Kindergarten-Through-Third-Grade Policies

Source: Louisa Diffey, Education Commission of the States, June 4, 2018

High-quality, early elementary years offer a critical opportunity for development and academic learning for all children. Key components of a quality, K-3 experience include kindergarten, qualified teachers, seamless transitions, appropriate assessments and interventions, family engagement, social-emotional supports and academic supports. Education Commission of the States has researched the policies that guide these key components in all 50 states to provide this comprehensive resource. Click on the questions below for 50-State Comparisons, showing how all states approach specific policies, or view a specific state’s approach by going to the individual state profiles page.

Key Takeaways
– Seventeen states, plus the District of Columbia, require children to attend kindergarten, although the length of day varies across states.

– Thirteen states, plus the District of Columbia, require the district to offer full-day kindergarten.

– Eighteen states, plus the District of Columbia, have policies in place to guide the transition from pre-K to kindergarten. This guidance often includes written transition plans, family engagement, teacher/provider meetings and assessment data linkages.

– Forty-two states, plus the District of Columbia, detail the interventions available to K-3 students, often including extended instructional time, parental engagement, evidence-based instruction, summer reading opportunities and small group instruction.

– Twenty-nine states, plus the District of Columbia, have retention policies in place, which are designed to support students who are not on grade level by the end of third grade.

– Forty states, plus the District of Columbia, emphasize social-emotional learning in K-3 in statute, rules or regulations. Usually, social-emotional learning is emphasized in kindergarten entrance assessments, school readiness definitions and/or teacher training requirements…..