Category Archives: Discrimination

A Collection of Materials About Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Portrait of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.
From the National Archives and Records Administration.
Resources from The King Center, Atlanta, Georgia
Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial
Martin Luther King Encyclopedia (via Stanford University)
Digitized: Official March on Washington Program (via NARA)
This program listed the events scheduled at the Lincoln Memorial during the August 28, 1963.
● The Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project at Stanford University
Martin Luther King, Jr. Newspaper Archive
Over 50,000 full text and full image newspaper articles about the life and work of Dr. King. Access to the database and its contents is free. Registration or subscription are not required to access the material.
MLK Day Resources (via
Includes: History of the Holiday, Biography of Martin Luther King, Civil Disobedience, King Assassination Conspiracy Theories, The March on Washington, Excerpt from the “I Have a Dream” Speech, Martin Luther King Speeches, Quotes from Martin Luther King, Timelines: Martin Luther King, Jr. and Civil Rights Movement
Voices of Civil Rights Online Exhibition (via Library of Congress)
The exhibition Voices of Civil Rights documents events during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. This exhibition draws from the thousands of personal stories, oral histories, and photographs collected by the “Voices of Civil Rights” project, a collaborative effort of AARP, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR), and the Library of Congress, and marks the arrival of these materials in the Library’s collection.
Court Documents Related to Martin Luther King, Jr., and Memphis Sanitation Workers (via National Archives and Records Administration)
We Shall Overcome, Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement (via National Park Service)
Online exhibition.
Nobel Peace Prize Materials (via
Presentation Speech Gunnar Jahn*, Chairman of the Nobel Committee, 1964
MLK’s Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
December 10, 1964
Transcript of MLK’s Nobel Lecture
December 11, 1964
Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement Resources (The Seattle Times)
Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site (via National Park Service)
CNN Student News One-Sheet: Martin Luther King Jr. (via CNN)

Race and Economic Jeopardy for All: A Framing Paper for Defeating Dog Whistle Politics

Source: Ian Haney López, AFL-CIO, January 2016

From the summary:
….This paper, Race and Economic Jeopardy for All: A Framing Paper for Defeating Dog Whistle Politics, explains and offers a response to the gravest threat facing the labor movement and indeed our democracy: the power of wealthy elites to use racial scapegoating to turn working people against each other and against good government, allowing them to seize ever more wealth and power while hollowing out the working class….

Sex Discrimination and the United States Supreme Court: Developments in the Law

Source: Jody Feder, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report, RL30253, December 30, 2015

In its sex discrimination decisions, the United States Supreme Court not only has defined the applicability of the equal protection guarantees of the Constitution and the nondiscriminatory policies of federal statutes, but also has rejected the use of gender stereotypes and has continued to recognize the discriminatory effect of gender hostility in the workplace and in schools. This report focuses on sex discrimination challenges based on: the equal protection guarantees of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments; the prohibition against employment discrimination contained in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; and the prohibition against sex discrimination in education contained in Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Although this report focuses on recent legal developments in each of these areas, this report also provides historical context by discussing selected landmark sex discrimination cases…..

Reframing public housing in Richmond, Virginia: Segregation, resident resistance and the future of redevelopment

Source: Amy L. Howard, Thad Williamson, Cities, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 22 December 2015
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
This paper is a three-part assessment of the history of public housing in Richmond, Virginia and an account of current efforts to create a progressive model for public housing redevelopment in the city. Part One provides a short history of Richmond’s creation of nearly exclusively African-American public housing in the East End of the city in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, and describes a regional context in which virtually all public housing in the entire metropolitan area is located within a central city that is home to just one-sixth of the overall metro population. Part Two provides an account of the Blackwell public housing complex in Richmond under the Hope VI program, beginning in the late 1990s, and an account of the tenant activism that arose in response to the many problems and shortcomings with that project. That activism later resulted in the tenant-led coalition Residents of Public Housing in Richmond Against Mass Evictions (or RePHRAME). Together non-profit and tenant activists in RePHRAME have collaborated over the past several years to challenge redevelopment practices that threaten to diminish the number of public housing units in the city. Part Three is an in-progress report on an effort we are each personally involved in that includes participation by RePHRAME members as well as several community organizations and leaders that have been part of the RePHRAME coalition: to create a new resident-driven, progressive redevelopment process for the city. This process aims to build consensus among city policymakers and many tenants that redevelopment of the city’s highly concentrated public housing units for the sake of improving opportunities and living conditions for residents is a moral imperative. Recognizing and articulating the history of segregation, mismanagement, and deep distrust between residents and public authorities, this process takes seriously the deep-seated and legitimate concerns of tenants with the aim of assuring much more positive outcomes in future redevelopment processes.

Nurse Staffing Hours At Nursing Homes With High Concentrations Of Minority Residents, 2001–11

Source: Yue Li, Charlene Harrington, Dana B. Mukamel, Xi Cen, Xueya Cai and Helena Temkin-Greener, Health Affairs, vol. 34 no. 12, December 2015
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Recent increases in state Medicaid payments to nursing homes have the potential to reduce disparities in nurse staffing between facilities with high and low concentrations of racial/ethnic minority residents. Analyses of nursing home and state policy survey data for the period 2001–11 suggest that registered nurse and licensed practical nurse staffing levels increased slightly during this period, regardless of racial/ethnic minority resident concentration. Adjusted disparities in registered nurse hours per resident day between nursing homes with high and low concentrations of minority residents persisted, although they were reduced. Certified nursing assistant hours per patient day increased in nursing homes with low concentrations of minorities but decreased in homes with high concentrations, creating a new disparity. Overall, increases in state Medicaid payment rates to nursing homes were associated with improvements in staffing and reduced staffing disparities across facilities, but the adoption of case-mix payments had the opposite effect. Further reforms in health care delivery and payment are needed to address persistent disparities in care between nursing homes serving higher proportions of minority residents and those serving lower proportions, and to prevent unintended exacerbations of such disparities.

Voter Suppression or Voter Fraud in the 2014 US Elections?

Source: Pippa Norris, Holly Ann Garnett, Harvard University – Harvard Kennedy School (HKS), HKS Working Paper No. 040, July 23, 2015

During recent years, U.S. states have often diverged by adopting either more lenient or stricter electoral procedures. What have been the consequences of these laws for the risks of voter suppression or voter fraud? Heated partisan debate surrounds this question. To consider new evidence, the paper studies variations in the logistical costs of registration and balloting in state laws to generate the most appropriate within-country comparison. Part I sets out the conceptual and theoretical framework. Part II describes the research design that takes advantage of a new dataset, PEI-US-2014, based on an expert survey of Perceptions of Electoral Integrity conducted in 21 U.S. states immediately after the 2014 U.S. Congressional elections. This data is combined with a new Convenience Election Laws Index (CEL) summarizing variations in the leniency of state laws for registering and voting. Multilevel (HLM) analysis is used to compare the state-level CEL index against expert evaluations of the integrity of the registration and voting process. Part III presents the results of the analysis. The conclusion in Part IV draws together the major findings and considers their implications.

….The new evidence we analyzed suggests that even after controlling for many factors which might influence expert’s judgments, including their ideological and partisan leanings, state laws for registration and balloting are indeed related to the performance of voter registration and belloting processes. In particular, the analysis suggests that more lenient registration and balloting procedures used in a state are significantly associated with more accurate and inclusive electoral registers, according to expert evaluations. At the same time, based on the analysis, we found no proof that convenience procedures led to more ineligible electors being registered, again according to expert judgments of the quality of state elections. From these findings, it does appear that the assumed trade off between convenience and security is false; we were unable to demonstrate that more lenient procedures increased the risks of voter impersonation, identity theft, or other irregularities in the electoral roll.

Secondly, however, the impact of these state laws should not be exaggerated; convenience state registration and balloting procedures do not affect the overall performance of state elections, as monitored through the standardized PEI index measuring more general perceptions of electoral integrity. This finding is not surprising in many ways. Although controversies about registration and balloting laws receive the most media attention in American, these procedures cannot account for the full electoral integrity score in each state.

This observation reinforces the necessity of broadening our conceptualization of electoral integrity and studying the entire electoral cycle, not just the end stages of the process. Cases around the world demonstrate that electoral integrity can also be undermined by partisan gerrymandering or by malapportionment favoring incumbents when drawing constituency boundaries. Party and candidate registration processes may prove equally problematic, for example where independent candidates or new parties face high thresholds before they can gain ballot access. Imbalanced campaign media coverage can also fail to provide a level playing field, and political finance regulations pose another range of challenges, especially where candidates need to accumulate large war chests to succeed. Voting processes in polling places can be flawed, including issues of ballot irregularities and broken machines, while inaccurate counts or insecure ballot seals can undermine the vote tabulation process. The credibility of the outcome can suffer from undue delays in announcing the results, or by lack of transparency and audit processes. And finally election officials are vital to administering electoral processes and implementing the rules, and problems can commonly arise where authorities lack knowRhow capacity, technical resources, or a culture of impartiality. This study therefore sheds light on some of the reasons why American elections perform so poorly compared with other established democracies – but clearly each of the stages throughout the electoral cycle need to be taken into consideration for comprehensive explanations of patterns of electoral integrity.

Fact Sheet: Retaliation Based on Exercise of Workplace Rights Is Unlawful

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Fact Sheet, December 10, 2015

Federal agencies responsible for enforcing workers’ rights seek to protect all workers from exploitation and violations, regardless of immigration status. Many workers, however, are deterred or prevented from asserting workplace rights for fear of retaliation. In some cases, employers may exploit immigration status to discourage workers from asserting their rights. U.S. laws generally prohibit employers from retaliating against workers for exercising their workplace rights, regardless of the workers’ immigration status. Effective enforcement of labor and employment laws requires that the enforcement process be insulated from inappropriate manipulation by parties who seek to prevent workers from exercising their rights or retaliate against them when they do. This fact sheet clarifies that retaliation against workers who assert workplace rights is unlawful, regardless of the workers’ immigration status.

Employer Wellness Programs and Genetic Information: Frequently Asked Questions

Source: Amanda K. Sarata, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report, R44311, December 17, 2015

….This report explains when an employer may request genetic information from an employee as part of a wellness program with an inducement attached to participation and the requirements the employer must follow when doing so. It also discusses the EEOC’s proposed rule whereby a spouse may be incentivized to provide his or her own medical information, which is also the employee’s genetic information, as part of a wellness program…..

The Current State of Equal Pay Laws

Source: Katherine McAnallen, Legisbrief, Vol. 23 no. 40, October 2015

The subject of wage inequality between the sexes remains a contentious topic, although it has been more than 50 years since the Equal Pay Act and the Civil Rights Act were passed. Although the wage disparity has decreased since the late 1970s, it reflects the long road to realizing equal pay in the workplace.