Source: Donald Hirasuna, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report for Congress, R42643, January 23, 2013
…To inform the ongoing policy debate, this report provides information relevant to proposals that would restrict the payment of unemployment benefits to individuals with high incomes. Three primary areas that may be of interest to lawmakers are addressed: (1) the current U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) opinion on means-testing UI benefits; (2) the potential number of people who would be affected by such proposals; and (3) policy considerations such as the potential savings associated with such proposals, particularly in terms of federal expenditures. The latter two issues are discussed because a small percentage (approximately 0.02%) of tax filers receiving unemployment benefit income had AGI of $1 million or more in tax year 2009 based on Internal Revenue Service (IRS) data….
…This report addresses many of the questions that have arisen regarding such proposals, including the potential number of people who would be affected and the potential savings to federal and state governments. To place these proposals into context, the report provides a brief overview of the UI system and explains why receipt of UI benefits is not restricted based on income under current law. It then presents Internal Revenue Service (IRS) data on the distribution of household income and unemployment benefits for tax years 2008 and 2009 to shed light on the size of the group potentially affected by such proposals. The report raises policy considerations such as the potential impact of such proposals on federal expenditures, given the joint federal-state nature of unemployment programs. Finally, it summarizes relevant legislation in the 112th Congress…
Source: Barry P. Bosworth and Kathleen Burke, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, Working Paper, WP#2012-27, November 2012
From the abstract:
This paper focuses on an explanation for the large shift over the past two decades in the composition of the income of the aged (65+), increasing the role of earned income and reducing the importance of income from their own assets. We find that the pattern of change is consistently reported in all of the major household surveys. The increase in the importance of labor income can be attributed to delayed exit from the labor force by workers at older ages. We attribute the increase in work time to a rise in the proportion of more educated workers who choose to continue working, changes within the pension system that previously encouraged early retirement, and a decline in the availability of retiree health insurance. The increase in work time is concentrated among the highest income groups and those with the most education, suggesting that it is largely voluntary. The fall in asset income can be traced to lower interest rates and a reduced propensity for the aged to convert their wealth to annuities. It does not reflect reduced wealth at older ages. A measure of the annuity equivalent of their wealth holdings suggests that there has been no decline for aged units. We also find only a weak relationship between changes in asset income and the decision to remain in the workforce.
Source: RoadMap, DataCenter and the National Organizers Alliance, July 2012
Retaining and developing talented staff is vital to building strong, sustainable, and high-impact organizations. Yet compensation policies in small to mid-sized social justice organizations have been largely unexamined until now. In collaboration with DataCenter and the National Organizers Alliance, RoadMap has produced The Wages of Peace and Justice, a 2012 National Compensation Survey of Social Justice Organizations. This survey provides invaluable information about salary and benefit trends among community organizing and advocacy organizations and the extent to which these compensation policies reflect social justice values. DataCenter’s researchers alongside with DataCenter interns designed the survey, collected the responses, and analyzed the data to produce the comprehensive report. …
Source: Lawrence Mishel and Nicholas Finio, Economic Policy Institute, Issue Brief #347, January 23, 2013
From the summary:
There has been some discussion over the last year or so that the growth of income inequality—especially the trends favoring the top 1.0 percent—had been reversed in the recent downturn and, therefore, policymakers need not focus on the overall increase in income inequality since the late 1970s.
Newly available data on the labor earnings of the very highest earners are the first indicators available for 2011 enabling a determination as to whether this is indeed the case. These data allow an assessment of how wages grew for the various wage segments of the workforce, including the top 1.0 percent, during the recent downturn and the recovery through 2011. The data also allow us to update our analysis in The State of Working America, 12th Edition (Mishel et al. 2012) of wage growth since 1947—and especially since 1979, when wage inequality began to rise. The data cover annual earnings because they are drawn from the wage records in the Social Security system. Since these data are for annual wages and salaries, the trends identified reflect both changes in hourly wages and changes in annual hours worked (based on changes in weekly hours and weeks worked per year). …
Source: Robert E. Lee, Andrew M. Thompson, Compensation Benefits Review, Vol. 44 no. 5, September/October 2012
From that abstract:
As state and local governments attempt to manage fiscal stress created by the Great Recession, the level of compensation received by public sector workers has become an increasingly debated policy issue. A significant amount of research exists that addresses national public sector compensation trends, but relatively few state-level studies have been performed. This analysis provides a preliminary analysis of public and private sector compensation in Florida. Using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau, sector-level comparisons are made between public and private sector workers within the state with regard to compensation, age and education. This sector-level comparison is then supplemented by an occupational analysis of career fields found in both sectors. The sector-level analysis suggests public sector workers in Florida are, on average, not only better compensated than those in the private sector in aggregate but are also considerably more educated and older. The occupational analysis suggests that public sector workers in Florida are in general less well-compensated than private sector workers employed in the same field, even when older and more highly educated on average.
Source: Jackson Healthcare and Jackson Nurse Professionals, 2012
From the summary:
According to our year-end 2012 national survey, nurses throughout the country give high marks to their jobs but anticipate challenges within the coming years.
Topics surveyed and included in this report:
– Employment demographics, including compensation
– Career and retirement plans
– Overall job satisfaction and drivers of satisfaction
– Preferred work environment
– Threats to job satisfaction
– Preferences for advanced practitioners
Source: Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute (PHI), October 2012
From the abstract:
Provides a state-by-state look at trends in wages for PCAs, the fourth fastest-growing occupation in the country, and a key job title within the direct-care workforce. Prepared as a resource guide on wages for advocates and policymakers concerned with the direct-care workforce, the data underscore the problem of low wages for PCAs, factors which contribute to workforce instability and near-poverty incomes for this high-demand workforce.
Source: Richard McGregory, James Peoples, Journal of Labor Research, December 2012
From the abstract:
This study tests the union skill homogeneity hypothesis by examining whether the erosion of foreign-domestic wage differentials reported in past studies varies by union status. We argue that the common practice of unions negotiating standardized wages promotes skill homogeneity that allows high credential-low unmeasured skill foreign nurses the opportunity to receive wages that match high credential domestic nurses without foreign nurses relying heavily on their labor mobility. Findings show returns to domestic experience accrue faster for foreign nurses belonging to a union compared to returns for non-union foreign nurses. In general, findings on pension coverage indicate foreign nurses also benefit from belonging to a union, while findings on employer sponsored health care benefits indicate a lack of any notable differences in the receipt of this compensation by foreign and union status.
Source: Stephen E. Condrey, Rex L. Facer II and Jared J. Llorens, Public Administration Review, Volume 72, Issue 6, November/December 2012
In recent years, the debate concerning the status of public sector compensation has grown at all levels of government. At the state and local levels, this debate has largely bypassed the issue of pay and centered on jurisdictions’ ability to maintain traditional defined-benefit retirement systems in light of declining tax revenues. At the federal level, the primary focus has been the extent to which federal employee pay is comparable to private sector pay, and much of this discussion is driven by the requirement in the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 for an annual comparison of federal employee pay with the private sector. Further, this debate has captured broader questions surrounding proper goals for federal pay comparability policy.
Grounded in research and practice, conventional wisdom has held that the ability of an employer to offer competitive pay rates directly affects a number of critical human resource management metrics, from employee retention to job performance. However, while most researchers and practitioners would agree on the broad influence of competitive pay, there is considerable disagreement over proper approaches for determining and setting competitive pay levels….
Source: United States Government Accountability Office, GAO-12-564, June 2012
From the summary:
…GS employees are eligible to receive three types of pay increases and monetary awards that are linked to individual performance appraisals: within-grade increases, ratings-based cash awards, and quality step increases. Within-grade increases are the least strongly linked to performance, ratings-based cash awards are more strongly linked to performance depending on the rating system the agency uses, and quality step increases are also more strongly linked to performance.
Findings of selected pay and total compensation (pay and benefit) comparison studies varied due to different approaches, methods, and data. Regarding their pay analysis, the studies’ conclusions varied on which sector had the higher pay and the size of pay disparities. However, the overall pay disparity number does not tell the whole story; each of the studies that examined whether differences in pay varied among categories of workers, such as highly or less educated workers or workers in different occupations, found such variations. Three approaches were used to compare pay:
– human capital approach (3 studies)–compares pay for individuals with various personal attributes (e.g., education, experience) and other attributes (e.g., occupation, firm size);
– job-to-job approach (2 studies)–compares pay for similar jobs of various types based on job-related attributes such as occupation, does not take into account the personal attributes of the workers currently filling them; and
– trend analysis approach (1 study)–illustrates broad trends in pay over time without controlling for attributes of the workers or jobs.