Category Archives: Children

Long Run Impacts of Childhood Access to the Safety Net

Source: Hilary W. Hoynes, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Douglas Almond, National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper No. 18535, November 2012

From the abstract:
A growing economics literature establishes a causal link between in utero shocks and health and human capital in adulthood. Most studies rely on extreme negative shocks such as famine and pandemics. We are the first to examine the impact of a positive and policy-driven change in economic resources available in utero and during childhood. In particular, we focus on the introduction of a key element of the U.S. safety net, the Food Stamp Program, which was rolled out across counties in the U.S. between 1961 and 1975. We use the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to assemble unique data linking family background and county of residence in early childhood to adult health and economic outcomes. The identification comes from variation across counties and over birth cohorts in exposure to the food stamp program. Our findings indicate that the food stamp program has effects decades after initial exposure. Specifically, access to food stamps in childhood leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of “metabolic syndrome” (obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes) and, for women, an increase in economic self-sufficiency. Overall, our results suggest substantial internal and external benefits of the safety net that have not previously been quantified.

2012 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

Source: U.S. Department Of Labor’s Bureau Of International Labor Affairs Office Of Child Labor, Forced Labor, And Human Trafficking, September 2012

This edition of the List adds four new goods and three new countries to the List. The List now includes a total of 134 goods from 74 countries. Given the current state of research on child labor and forced labor, the List – while as comprehensive as possible – includes only those goods for which ILAB is able to document that there is reason to believe that child or forced labor is used in their production. It is likely that many more goods are produced through these forms of labor abuse. This report is divided into four parts. In addition to DOL’s mandate and the research purpose, Part 1 of this report describes the research focus, including the population of interest, definitions of child labor and forced labor, the sectors and types of employment, the stages of production and the ultimate consumption of the goods (export or domestic). Part 2 outlines the research methodology, including the criteria used to analyze data sources and make determinations regarding additions to or removals from the List. This section also discusses the role that governments, the private sector and workers and civil society can play in eliminating child labor and forced labor in the production of goods. Part 3 presents the results of this year’s research and includes a brief analysis of trends observed since ILAB began producing the List in 2009. Part 4 places the results of the research in a broader context and concludes with a discussion about important efforts that are ongoing or are needed to advance efforts to eliminate child and forced labor in the production of goods.
Related:
Press Release
Bibliography
Current Countries and Products (XLS)
Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2011

Source: Stephanie Schmit, Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), Fact Sheet, November 2012

Using data from the Head Start Program Information Report (PIR), CLASP has developed two new fact sheets providing a look at the Head Start preschool and Early Head Start programs in the 2010-2011 program year. These new fact sheets explore the characteristics of children and families served by the programs, as well as the programs themselves and their staff.
Related:
Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2011

Planning Funding Partnerships: A Worksheet to Help States Get Started in Putting it Together

Source: Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), 2012

This interactive worksheet comes from CLASP’s Putting it Together: A Guide to Financing Comprehensive Services in Child Care and Early Education. States and communities embarking on financing partnerships to expand access to comprehensive services can use this worksheet to begin mapping the need, available resources, and potential partnering strategies that will help them move forward. This document may be downloaded, edited, and saved.

State Child Care Policies for Limited English Proficient Families

Source: Emily Firgens and Hannah Matthews, Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP). October 2012

This paper summarizes state-reported activities to better serve and engage with Limited English Proficient (LEP) families and providers through state child care assistance programs. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) State Plans, last revised for FFY 2012-2013, serve as the source of new information on how states’ activities and policies target LEP and immigrant families, children, and providers.

Expanding Access to Early Head Start: State Initiatives for Infants and Toddlers at Risk

Source: Stephanie SchmIt, Jamie Colvard, Center for Law and Social Policy, Zero to Three (ZTT), September 2012

From the press release:
Today, CLASP and ZERO TO THREE (ZTT), released the new report Expanding Access to Early Head Start: State Initiatives for Infants and Toddlers at Risk, which highlights current state initiatives to expand and enhance Early Head Start (EHS) services for infants, toddlers, and their families.

CLASP and ZTT found that 23 states are using at least one of four approaches to build on the federally funded EHS program:

– Nine states have initiatives that extend the day or year of existing EHS services
– Nineteen states have initiatives that expand the capacity of EHS programs to increase the number of children and pregnant women served
– Two states provide resources and assistance to child care providers
– Six states support partnerships between EHS and center-based and/or family child care providers

Putting it Together: A guide to financing comprehensive services in child care and early education

Source: Christine Johnson-Staub, Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), August 2012

From the summary:
CLASP’s newly released Putting it Together: A Guide to Financing Comprehensive Services in Child Care and Early Education aims to help states look beyond the major sources of child care and early education funding and consider alternative federal financing sources to bring comprehensive services into early childhood settings. Comprehensive services like preventive health care, developmental screenings, and family support are critical to the success of children – especially those who are most at risk for developmental challenges and delays. Yet the sources of child care funding historically available to states have limited supply and allowable uses, and are insufficient to provide comprehensive services in most child care and early education settings….CLASP’s financing guide walks early childhood stakeholders through the steps of building financing partnerships, and provides critical information and resources related to specific federal funding streams that support comprehensive services for children. The guide includes funding examples from state and local communities and technical details on the allowable uses of funding streams to support comprehensive services.

Profit before Children: Health and Well-Being of Medically Fragile Children & Young Adults at Risk in Geriatric Nursing Homes

Source: Florida Association for Medically Fragile Children, White Paper, 2012

From the press release:
[This] details how the state of Florida and geriatric nursing homes are violating federal law and putting the lives of medically fragile children and young adults at risk. Major revelations in “Profit before Children” detail the crisis:
1. The number of seniors in Florida nursing homes is decreasing. So, owners of geriatric facilities are competing to fill their beds with medically fragile children simply
to remain profitable, but they are not equipped to do so.
2. Florida may be violating federal law by not providing services guaranteed all children receiving Medicaid under the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment Program.
3. Possibly violating federal law, the Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA), Children’s Medical Services, physicians, and hospitals are referring children
directly to geriatric nursing homes without proper developmental testing or the legally mandated presentation of other options.
4. Geriatric nursing homes are lobbying the Florida Legislature to approve reduced levels of care that violate federal law. Their current staffing regulations are
already inadequate to care for medically fragile children. Under proposed bills (SB 482, SB1884, HB 621, & HB 1419), they want to further reduce staffing requirements to dangerous levels.
5. An up-to-date, statewide, reliable needs assessment of the population of medically fragile children and young adults has not been done in Florida. So, geriatric
facilities cannot ethically be granted a certificate of need.
6. Geriatric nursing homes cannot properly assess the treatment needs of medically fragile children and young adults. Assessments and care plans administered in
long-term, geriatric facilities are standardized for people over 65, but they ignore the special needs of medically fragile children and young adults.
7. Monitoring systems in geriatric facilities have been designed for individuals over 65 who can press a call button for assistance. Medically fragile children and young
adults cannot possibly operate them, which could put their lives at risk.

Children's Health Insurance: Opportunities Exist for Improved Access to Affordable Insurance

Source: U.S. Government Accountability Office, GAO-12-648, June 22, 2012

From the summary:
GAO estimates that under the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), about three-quarters of approximately 7 million children who were uninsured in January 2009 would be eligible for Medicaid, the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), or the new premium tax credit. The remaining children had family incomes too high to be eligible, were noncitizens, or would be ineligible for the premium tax credit because they would be considered to have access to affordable employer-sponsored insurance per the Internal Revenue Service’s (IRS) proposed affordability standard, in which IRS interpreted PPACA as defining affordability for an employee’s eligible family members based on the cost of an employee-only plan. Some commenters raised concerns that IRS’s interpretation was inconsistent with PPACA’s goal of increasing access to affordable health insurance as it does not consider the higher cost of family insurance and could result in some children remaining uninsured. Under PPACA, CHIP is not funded beyond 2015, and states may opt to reduce CHIP eligibility or eliminate programs in fiscal year 2020. Without CHIP, more children could become uninsured. In May 2012, IRS finalized its rule but deferred finalizing the proposed affordability standard.

Children's Budget 2012

Source: First Focus, 2012

From the press release:
First Focus today released a report finding that, for the first time since the children’s advocacy organization began its budget analyses in 2008, “discretionary” spending (the budget decisions made by Congress through annual appropriations bills) on children has declined for two consecutive years. Children’s Budget 2012 observes that less than 8 percent of the federal budget is invested in children…. Children’s Budget 2012 is a detailed analysis of more than 180 federal investments in children. They range from investments children benefit from every day like education, to acute problems such as child abuse and neglect prevention. The analysis also includes initiatives not traditionally recognized as investments in children, like federal affordable housing initiatives and Social Security. Discretionary spending on children has declined by about $2 billion since 2010….

See also:
Abstract
Slide Show
ChildrensBudget.org