Source: Trish A. Petak, Gabbie S. Miller, American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences, ASBBS Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference, 2019
From the abstract:
Businesses are more efficient when employees are motivated and productive. This study investigated the correlation between flex-time and motivation in employees, as well as flex-time and productivity in employees. The research methodology used for this study was correlation research designed to examine the relationship between flex-time and motivation and the relationship between flex-time and productivity. This quantitative study consisted of 63 voluntary participants. The findings of this study illustrated a very strong positive correlation between flex-time and employee motivation and a strong positive relationship between flex-time and employee productivity.
Source: Mary K. Feeney, Justin M. Stritch, Review of Public Personnel Administration, Volume 39 Issue 3, September 2019
From the abstract:
Family-friendly policies and culture are important components of creating a healthy work environment and are positively related to work outcomes for public employees and organizations. Furthermore, family-friendly policies and culture are critical mechanisms for supporting the careers and advancement of women in public service and enhancing gender equity in public sector employment. While both policies and culture can facilitate women’s participation in the public sector workforce, they may affect men and women differently. Using data from a 2011 study with a nationwide sample of state government employees, we investigate the effects of employee take-up of leave policies, employer supported access to child care, alternative work scheduling, and a culture of family support on work–life balance (WLB). We examine where these variables differ in their effects on WLB among men and women and make specific recommendations to further WLB among women. The results inform the literature on family-friendly policies and culture in public organizations.
Source: Sun Young Kim, David Lee, Review of Public Personnel Administration, OnlineFirst, January 13, 2019
From the abstract:
Work–life programs (WLPs) have been widely adopted and implemented by public organizations as a means of providing employees with greater choices and flexibility in coordinating their work and personal lives. Although previous research has shown that these programs are positively related to various employee attitudes and behaviors, empirical evidence about whether and how such relationships vary by type of WLP is relatively scant. In this study, we categorize WLPs into two different types—work-oriented and life-oriented programs—and explore whether and how participating in distinct types of WLPs has varying impacts on employee work attitudes. A series of Mahalanobis distance matching is conducted using data from the 2011 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey. The results indicate that the use of life-oriented programs has a positive and substantive impact on employee satisfaction and commitment, while the effect of participating in work-oriented programs is not statistically significant
Source: Mark E. Bokert and Alan Hahn, Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol. 45, No. 1, Summer 2019
From the abstract:
The Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services jointly issued proposed regulations (the “Proposed Regulations”) providing employers with greater flexibility in offering health reimbursement arrangements (“HRAs”) to employees. Importantly, if the Proposed Regulations are finalized in substantially its current form, employers would be able to offer employees an HRA that “integrates with” individual health insurance coverage. As a result, these Proposed Regulations, in essence, would enable employers to offer HRAs in lieu of a traditional group health plan to their employees. Additionally, the Proposed Regulations set forth conditions under which an HRA can be recognized as a limited excepted benefit HRA, which provides employers with another vehicle to provide employee benefits to their employees.
The Proposed Regulations are set to take effect for plan years beginning on and after January 1, 2020, although this is dependent on the regulations being finalized. The deadline for submitting comments on the Proposed Regulations was December 28, 2018.
Source: Mark E. Bokert and Alan Hahn, Employee Relations Law Journal, Vol. 45, No. 2, Autumn 2019
From the abstract:
When an employee retires, he or she typically has three sources of income to draw upon: personal savings, Social Security, and a retirement plan (typically a 401(k) plan). These income sources are subject to certain risks. There is “longevity risk,” i.e., the risk that the retiree will outlive his or her savings. There is also “inflation risk,” i.e., the risk that the retiree’s purchasing power will erode over time. There is also an “incapacity risk,” i.e., the risk that the retiree will have a diminishing capacity to oversee his or her investments as he or she ages.
Annuities can help solve several of these issues because they provide benefits over a retiree’s lifetime. As a result, some employers are adding annuities to their 401(k) plan. Congress is also encouraging 401(k) plan sponsors to offer in-plan annuities. Proposed bipartisan legislation alleviates many concerns that 401(k) plan sponsors have about offering annuities within their plans. This legislation is expected to be enacted into law later this year. As in-plan annuities solve important retirement issues and are far less expensive to participants than those available in the retail market, plan sponsors may wish to consider making in-plan annuities available to their 401(k) plan participants.
Source: Devan Hawkins, Junli Zhu, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Early View, July 22, 2019
From the abstract:
Workers with paid sick leave may have a lower rate of occupational injuries compared with other workers. This study sought to determine whether there was a decline in the rate of occupational injuries and illnesses following the implementation of a paid sick leave law in Connecticut (CT).
Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics was used to calculate the rate of occupational injuries and illnesses in CT in the 3 years before (2009‐11) and after (2012‐14) the law was implemented. These numbers were compared with New York (NY) and the United States, and between the occupations specified by the CT law and other occupations.
Among service occupations addressed by the CT paid‐sick‐leave law, the rate of occupational injuries declined more in CT compared to rates for those same occupations in NY and the United States. Within CT, injury and illness rates showed a greater decline in occupations specified by the law (−17.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −15.6‐−19.9) compared with other occupations (−6.8%; 95% CI = −6.6%‐−7.0%) between the two periods.
A paid sick leave law was associated with an increased decline in occupational injuries and illnesses in affected service workers in the period after implementation. Further research should examine the possible reasons for the associations seen here.
Source: Thomas Aaron, Timothy Blake, Moody’s, Sector In-Depth, June 24, 2019
Many US states and local governments, though certainly not all, face heightened credit challenges stemming from exposure to pension obligations, resulting in a highly varied and complex landscape. The severity of public pension challenges can differ substantially between, and even within, states.
Unfunded liabilities in many cases have reached historic highs, rising costs increasingly pressure some budgets, and aging demographics leave government finances increasingly susceptible to pension asset volatility. Yet in some cases, low or declining levels of pension risk bolster the credit profile of a given state or local government.
Governments grappling with pension challenges must often navigate legal protections for employee benefits that can limit reform options. However, litigation on a variety of pension reforms continues to work its way through courts across the country, offering the potential for precedent-setting decisions.
This series provides a state-by-state, in-depth review of the key issues related to pensions facing state and local governments. ….
Source: John G. Kilgour, Compensation & Benefits Review, OnlineFirst, Published July 19, 2019
From the https://doi.org/10.1177/0886368719864480:
Traditional employer-sponsored defined-benefit pension plans in the private sector that provided lifetime benefits have declined precipitously since 1985. They have been largely replaced by Section 401(k) plans in which investment control, market risk and longevity risk have been transferred from the employer to the participant. Most participants opted for the low-yielding money market plan default option, which proved inadequate for providing viable retirement income. The Pension Reform Act of 2006 made two important changes to 401(k) plans: (1) allowed automatic enrollment and (2) allowed target-date funds as a “qualified default investment alternative.” This article examines the evolution from defined-benefit pensions to target-date funds and the closely related collective investment trusts.
Source: S&P Global Ratings, July 11, 2019
The U.S. not-for-profit health care sector has benefited from an increase in the median funded status of its pension plans in fiscal 2018.
Source: Douglas Strane, Genevieve P. Kanter, Meredith Matone, Ahaviah Glaser, and David M. Rubin, Health Affairs, Vol. 38 No. 7, July 2019
From the abstract:
Working families have increasingly enrolled their children in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program in recent years. Parents’ place of employment affects the availability and cost of family health insurance, making it a determinant of pediatric public insurance enrollment. We examined that enrollment in the period 2008–16 in families working full time and earning more than 100 percent of the federal poverty level at three types of employers. Among low-income families (100–199 percent of poverty), children’s public health insurance coverage was highest for those with parents employed at small private firms, increasing from 53 percent to 79 percent, while the public insurance coverage rate also increased among children with parents working for large private firms (from 45 percent to 69 percent). Among moderate-income families (200–299 percent of poverty) working at small private firms, public coverage increased from 21 percent to 64 percent. Increases in the number of working families with pediatric public insurance were driven by employees of large private firms. Maintaining high pediatric insurance coverage rates will require policies that recognize the changing role of public insurance for working families as the cost of employer-based coverage grows.