Author Archives: afscme

Do Large Employers Treat Racial Minorities More Fairly? A New Analysis Of Canadian Field Experiment Data

Source: Rupa Banerjee, Jeffrey G. Reitz, Phil Oreopoulos, University of Toronto, January 25, 2017

Analysis of amended data from a large e-scale Canadian employment audit study (Oreopoulos 2011) shows that large employers with over 500 employees discriminate against applicants with Asian (Chinese, Indian or Pakistani) names in the decision to call for an interview, about half as often as smaller employers. The audit involved submission of nearly 13,000 computer-generated resumes to a sample of 3,225 jobs offered online in Toronto and Montreal in 2008 and 2009 for which university-trained applicants were requested by email submission. An organization-size difference in employer response to Asian names on the resume exists when the Asian-named applicant has all Canadian qualifications (20% disadvantage for large employers, almost 40% disadvantage for small employers) and when they have some or all foreign qualifications (35% disadvantage for large employers, over 60% disadvantage for small employers). Discrimination in smaller organizations is most pronounced in considering applicants for jobs at the highest skill levels. As well, whereas the Asian-name disadvantage is overcome in large organizations when the applicant has an additional Canadian master’s degree, this is not the case in smaller organizations. It is suggested that large organizations discriminate less frequently because they have more resources devoted to recruitment, a more professionalized human resources recruitment process, and greater experience with a diverse staff complement. Experimentation with anonymized resume review may be an inexpensive way that organizations can test their own hiring procedures for discrimination.
Related:
Asian Last Names Lead To Fewer Job Interviews, Still
Source: Jenny J. Chen, NPR, February 23, 2017

Why Do Skilled Immigrants Struggle in the Labor Market? A Field Experiment with Thirteen Thousand Resumes
Source: Philip Oreopoulos, American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, vol. 3, no. 4, November 2011
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Are Hospital Workers Healthy?: A Study of Cardiometabolic, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Obesity Among Hospital Workers

Source: Shreela V. Sharma, Mudita Upadhyaya, Mandar Karhade, William Baun, William B. Perkison, Lisa A. Pompeii, Henry S. Brown, Deanna M. Hoelscher, Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Vol. 58 no. 12, December 2016
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From the abstract:
Objective: This study evaluated the cardiometabolic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with weight status among hospital employees.

Methods: A total of n = 924 employees across the six hospitals in Texas participated in this cross-sectional study, 2012 to 2013. Association between weight status and waist circumference, blood pressure, biomarkers, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial factors was assessed.

Results: About 78.1% of employees were overweight/obese. Obese participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥30.0 kg/m2) had higher consumption of potatoes, fats, sugary beverages, and spent more time watching television, playing computer games, and sitting than those having normal weight. Being obese was positively associated with blood pressure, blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein. Finally, 78.8% of workers were dissatisfied with their worksite wellness with dissatisfaction being higher among obese employees. Being overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) was positively associated with blood pressure, but not other variables.

Conclusion: Understanding the risk profile of hospital workers is critical to developing effective interventions.

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Lethal Force by US Police, 2010–2014

Source: James W. Buehler, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 107 No. 2, February 2017
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From the abstract:
Objectives. To update previous examinations of racial/ethnic disparities in the use of lethal force by US police.

Methods. I examined online national vital statistics data for deaths assigned an underlying cause of “legal intervention” … for the 5-year period 2010 to 2014.

Results. Death certificates identified 2285 legal intervention deaths (1.5 per million population per year) from 2010 to 2014. Among males aged 10 years or older, who represented 96% of these deaths, the mortality rate among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic individuals was 2.8 and 1.7 times higher, respectively, than that among White individuals.

Conclusions. Substantial racial/ethnic disparities in legal intervention deaths remain an ongoing problem in the United States.

State Budgets Aren’t Accounting for Obamacare Repeal

Source: Mattie Quinn, Governing, January 23, 2017

In planning their finances for the year, governors are counting on health care to remain the same. But if it doesn’t, states could suddenly be on the hook for billions of dollars.
Related:
State Budgets Will be Challenged Under House Republican ACA Plan
Source: Lynn Hume, Bond Buyer, February 17, 2017
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The finances of states and health care providers could be hurt by the House Republican plan for repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, Fitch Ratings and S&P Global Ratings said in recent reports.

Paying the State Use Tax: Is a “Nudge” Enough?

Source: John E. Anderson, Public Finance Review, Vol 45 Issue 2, 2017
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From the abstract:
To improve use tax compliance, twenty-seven states have added a line to their income tax returns where taxpayers can report taxable sales. This article reports results of a behavioral study of a postcard “nudge” sent to income tax filers in one of those states, Nebraska, to encourage self-reporting of liability. The research question is whether the informational nudge was sufficient to alter self-reporting behavior. Data indicate that the nudge more than doubled the likelihood of use tax reporting and nearly doubled the amount of revenue collected, but the rate of use tax reporting remains extremely low. Probit models reveal that use tax reporting rises with income at a decreasing rate. Selection models are also estimated because of positive selection bias in the selection of the treatment group. Taken together, the results indicate that an informational nudge is not likely to be sufficient to substantially change use tax reporting behavior.

Racial And Ethnic Differences In The Frequency Of Workplace Injuries And Prevalence Of Work-Related Disability

Source: Seth A. Seabury, Sophie Terp and Leslie I. Boden, Health Affairs, Vol. 36 No. 2, February 2017
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From the abstract:
Occupational injuries and illnesses lead to significant health care costs and productivity losses for millions of workers each year. This study used national survey data to test for differences between members of minority groups and non-Hispanic white workers in the risk of workplace injuries and the prevalence of work-related disabilities. Non-Hispanic black workers and foreign-born Hispanic workers worked in jobs with the highest injury risk, on average, even after adjustment for education and sex. These elevated levels of workplace injury risk led to a significant increase in the prevalence of work-related disabilities for non-Hispanic black and foreign-born Hispanic workers. These findings suggest that disparities in economic opportunities expose members of minority groups to increased risk of workplace injury and disability.