Facility-level Factors Associated with CNA Turnover and Retention: Lessons for the Long-Term Services Industry

Source: Katherine A Kennedy, Robert Applebaum, John R Bowblis, The Gerontologist, Published: July 29, 2020
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From the abstract:
Background and Objectives:
Certified nursing assistant (CNA) turnover and retention are critical aspects of facilities’ ability to provide cost-effective, high quality person-centered care. Previous studies and industry practice often treat turnover and retention as similar concepts, assuming that low turnover and high retention are synonymous. The study addressed the question of whether turnover and retention rates differ and if so, what do those differences mean for nursing home practice, policy, and research.

Research Design and Methods:
This study examines facility-level factors associated with CNA retention and turnover rates using 2015 data from the Ohio Biennial Survey of Long-Term Care Facilities, Ohio Medicaid Cost Reports, Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Report, and the Area Health Resource File. Using bivariate tests and regression analysis, we compare rates and the factors associated with retention and turnover.

Results:
The mean facility annual retention rate was 64% and the mean annual turnover rate was 55%. As expected, there was a statistically significant and negative correlation between the rates (r = -0.26). However, some facilities had both high retention and high turnover and some had low rates for both measures. Not all the variables that are associated with turnover are also associated with retention.

Discussion and Implications:
CNA retention is not simply the absence of CNA turnover. Given the differences, nursing homes may need to use strategies and policies designed to target a particular stability measure.