The Effects of Sexism on American Women: The Role of Norms vs. Discrimination

Source: Kerwin Kofi Charles, Jonathan Guryan, Jessica Pan, University of Chicago, Becker Friedman Institute for Economics Working Paper No. 2018-56, July 12, 2018

From the abstract:
We study how reported sexism in the population affects American women. Fixed effects and TSLS estimates show that higher prevailing sexism where she was born (background sexism) and where she currently lives (residential sexism) both lower a woman’s wages, labor force participation and ages of marriage and childbearing. We argue that background sexism affects outcomes through the influence of previously internalized norms, and that estimated associations regarding specific percentiles and male versus female sexism suggest that residential sexism affects labor market outcomes through prejudice-based discrimination by men, and non-labor market outcomes through the influence of current norms of other women.