Source: Peter Cappelli, Martin Conyon, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), NBER Working Paper No. 22400, July 2016
From the abstract:
This paper investigates employee performance appraisals using data from a single US firm between 2001 and 2007. We find that performance appraisals are both informative and drive important components of the employment contract. We find that employee appraisal scores vary considerably both between and within individuals over time. In addition, we show that employee performance appraisal scores are related to a range of important employment outcomes, including merit pay and bonuses, promotions, demotions and dismissals, as well as employee quits.