Child Poverty Higher and More Persistent in Rural America

Source: Andrew Schaefer, Beth Mattingly, Kenneth M. Johnson, Carsey School of Public Policy at the University of New Hampshire, National Issue Brief #97, Winter 2016

From the summary:
The negative consequences of growing up in a poor family are well known. Poor children are less likely to have timely immunizations, have lower academic achievement, are generally less engaged in school activities, and face higher delinquency rates in adolescent years. Each of these has adverse impacts on their health, earnings, and family status in adulthood. Less understood is how the experience of poverty can differ depending on the community context. Being poor in a relatively well-off community with good infrastructure and schools is different from being poor in a place where poverty rates have been high for generations, where economic investment in schools and infrastructure is negligible, and where pathways to success are few. The hurdles are even higher in rural areas, where low population density, physical isolation, and the broad spatial distribution of the poor make service delivery and exposure to innovative programs more challenging.

This brief looks at both the incidence of high child poverty (20 percent or greater) over the past three decades and at the places where such high child poverty has persisted for all of those decades (see Box 1 for definitions of high and persistent child poverty). Our analysis documents both that the incidence of high child poverty is growing nationwide and that rural America includes a disproportionate share of children living in counties characterized as having persistent high child poverty.

Key Findings:
– Sixty-four percent of rural counties and 47 percent of urban counties had high child poverty in 2010.
– Counties with persistent high child poverty are clustered in Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, much of the Southeast, parts of the Southwest, and in the Great Plains.
– Persistent high child poverty is much more common in rural than in urban counties.
– Child poverty rates are dramatically lower for non-Hispanic white than for minority children regardless of the racial-ethnic composition of the county in which they live.
– More than three-quarters of counties with persistent high child poverty have a substantial minority child population.

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