Source: Susan Kendall, Alexander Heil, Duane Callender, Brian Wheeler, Tom Green, Municipal Finance Journal, Vol. 35 no. 4, Winter 2015
From the abstract:
Everyone agrees that the state of infrastructure in the United States is, at best, deplorable. The American Society of Civil Engineers gives America a cumulative grade point average of D+ and estimates that the country needs to invest $3.6 trillion by 2020 but that only $2 trillion in funding is expected to be available. Is $3.6 trillion really necessary? Who will pay for the remaining $1.6 trillion? What does it mean for the economy if the United States fails to fund needed projects? How do utility and infrastructure managers balance capital needs with economic reality? This article discusses the importance of infrastructure investment and how planning decisions are made at the national, state, and local levels.