Source: Anna Haley-Lock, Danielle Berman, Jeffrey M. Timberlake, Work and Occupations, Vol. 40 no. 3, August 2013
From the abstract:
The public and nonprofit sectors are known for providing enhanced employment opportunity to women, persons of color, and parents. The authors ask whether the same is true for workers without college degrees, examining sectoral differences in access to jobs offering fringe benefits, full-time hours, and schedule flexibility. The authors find that the influence of sector and union representation on job quality varies by type of benefit. For example, among public and for-profit employees, union representation is positively associated with benefits availability. Nonprofit employees of either union status have less access to full-time hours, and schedule flexibility is comparably available to all but unionized for-profit workers.