Downsizing Effects on Survivors: Layoffs, Offshoring, and Outsourcing

Source: Carl P. Maertz Jr., Jack W. Wiley, Cynthia Lerouge, Michael A. Campion, Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Volume 49, Issue 2, April 2010
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From the abstract:
In a representative sample of 13,683 U.S. employees, we compared survivors of layoffs, offshoring, outsourcing, and their combinations to a group who experienced no downsizing. Survivors of layoffs perceived lower organizational performance, job security, affective attachment, calculative attachment, and had higher turnover intentions. Offshoring survivors perceived lower performance, fairness, and affective attachment, but outsourcing survivors generally did not have more negative outcomes than the no-downsizing group. Layoffs generally had more negative outcomes than other downsizing forms.

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