This article examines experiences under Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), drawing on surveys of over 3,000 enrollees in California and North Carolina in 2002. In both States, Medicaid enrollees were less likely than SCHIP enrollees to have parents who were covered by employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). With the exception of dental care and provider perceptions, access experiences were fairly comparable across the two programs, despite differences in the characteristics of the children served by the two programs. Relative to being uninsured, Medicaid enrollment was found to improve access to care along a number of different dimensions, controlling for other factors. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for continued evaluation of access to care for both programs.