Exploring the question: who is a librarian?

Source: Robert Howard Kieserman, Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, Vol. 27 no. 1, 2014
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore the reason behind the conflictual relationship between degreed librarians and non-degreed professionals in the library organization.

Findings – The conflicts can be resolved using open communication and collaboration among colleagues.

Originality/value – Resolving conflicts in the working relationship between degreed librarians and non-degreed professionals eliminates hostilities and jealousies and allows the library organization to serve the library customer with a far more united approach to customer service.

The costs of having a bully in the library

Source: Michael A Crumpton, Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, Vol. 27 no. 1, 2014
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Purpose – This column addresses the issue of bullying within an organizational environment related to workplace conflict, which has not been typically noted within library organizations.

Design/methodology/approach – The column provides the context to determine if a problem exist and several resources to utilize if needed.

Findings – It is speculated that bullying can exist in library organizations as with other professional organizations, but has not been raised as an issue with regard to potential costs involved.

Originality/value – This topic is being addressed as part of the financial considerations present within library operations that bears attention in today’s environment.

Work hours and absenteeism among police officers

Source: Desta Fekedulegn, Cecil M Burchfiel, Tara A Hartley, Penelope Baughman, Luenda E Charles, Michael E Andrew, John M Violanti, International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, Vol. 15 no. 4, 2013
(subscription required)

From the PubMed abstract:
In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also stratified by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of one-day work absence and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence. The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence.

Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis

Source: John M. Violanti, Cynthia F Robinson, Rui Shen, International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, Vol. 15 no. 4, 2013
(subscription required)

From the PubMed abstract:
Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined. Detectives/criminal investigators/police had the higher suicide risk (an 82% increase) compared to corrections officers (a 41% increase). When analyzed by race and sex, suicide PMRs for Caucasian males were significantly high for both occupations-detectives/ criminal investigators/police. A significantly high ratio was found among Hispanic males in the law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police. There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide better data to inform us for preventive action.

The limits of equality bargaining in the USA

Source: Peter Berg, Matthew M Piszczek, Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 56 no. 2, April 2014
(subscription required)

From the abstract:
Gender equality bargaining in the US is poorly understood and lacks analysis. Using existing theories of collective bargaining and gender equality bargaining, we examine the state and process of gender equality bargaining in the US as well as the contextual factors that facilitate or inhibit its development. Based on interviews with national labor union leaders, we find that the practice of gender equality bargaining among US unions is relatively narrow, largely because of the unique inhibitive characteristics of the US environment. Key factors making gender equality bargaining difficult include a lack of public policy support and decentralized bargaining structures. We also find that while most national unions have made an effort to put female leaders in positions of power, this is not necessarily mirrored at the local level. Our analysis also includes a discussion of union strategies for overcoming inhibitive contextual factors and taking maximum advantage of facilitative contextual factors.

Top 5 Reasons Why Immigration Reform Means More Tax Revenues

Source: Patrick Oakford, Center for American Progress, April 15, 2014

Last year, the Senate passed the bipartisan Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act, or S. 744, which the Congressional Budget Office, or CBO, found would have significant fiscal and economic benefits for the nation. Yet since its passage, the House of Representatives has dragged its feet and failed to act on meaningful reform. This inaction means that the United States has already missed out on billions of dollars in potential tax revenues.

As millions of Americans file their taxes today, it’s important to remember that our broken immigration system diminishes our potential tax revenue. The following are the top five reasons why immigration reform would increase tax revenues:
1) 5 million more workers and their employers would pay payroll taxes….
2) Unauthorized immigrants would pay an additional $109 billion in federal, state, and local taxes….
3) Reform would add a net $606 billion to the Social Security trust fund….
4) Reform would extend the solvency of the Medicare trust fund by four years….
5) Reform would reduce the deficit by $820 billion over the next two decades….
Related:
Léalo en español

Activist Toolkit

Source: rabble.ca, 2014

Welcome to the Activist Toolkit! The Toolkit is a “wiki”, a group of collaborative webpages that rabble.ca members can create and modify. The Toolkit was developed with the support of the Douglas Coldwell Foundation; its purpose is to provide a dynamic online repository of useful guides,articles, images, reviews of web tools and other useful knowledge bases to the progressive community at large. You may think of the Toolkit as a type of online encyclopedia for activists, written from a progressive point of view. Anyone visiting rabble.ca may view and make use of the content on the Toolkit pages….

The Activist Toolkit Blog is the place to catch up on what’s new with the Toolkit. With weekly roundups of newly added tools, highlights of featured tools and extra multimedia content, you’ll get up to date info on grassroots organizing….

Sections include:
3 Minute Actionrabblepedia
How-To Guides
On This Day
Software Tools
Workshop Outlines
Media Commons

Paid Sick Leave Laws: A Growing Trend Across the U.S.

Source: Cindy Brockhausen and Bill Kalten, Towers Watson, April 21, 2014

In 2006, San Francisco became the first city in the U.S. to require paid sick leave. Since then, the momentum for paid sick leave has been building, with Washington, D.C.; Jersey City, N.J.; New York City; Portland, Ore.; Seattle; the state of Connecticut; and most recently Newark, N.J., following suit. Washington, D.C., and New York City have recently expanded their sick leave laws….

…Legislation mandating paid sick leave has been introduced in a number of other states and cities, including California, New Jersey, New York, Washington and Chicago. Efforts are also underway to enact legislation in other jurisdictions, such as Massachusetts, Oregon and Tacoma, Wash.

In a countertrend, some states have enacted preemption laws that prohibit local governments from passing paid sick leave legislation, including Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Tennessee. Wisconsin enacted legislation in 2011 that bars cities, villages and counties from enacting family and medical leave rules that differ from state standards, which effectively eliminated Milwaukee’s paid sick ordinance….

Beyond Bobby Jo Clary: The Unavailability of Same-Sex Marital Privileges Infringes the Rights of So Many More Than Criminal Defendants

Source: Katharine Traylor Schaffzin, University of Memphis Legal Studies Research Paper No. 136, March 31, 2014

From the abstract:
Confusion over the applicability of marital privileges invoked by same-sex spouses from one jurisdiction to the next has a chilling effect on the full and frank communication marital privileges seek to encourage. With the growing number of jurisdictions recognizing same-sex marriages in the wake of United States v. Windsor, conflicts between state marriage laws embracing marriage equality and state versions of the Defense of Marriage Act (“mini-DOMAs”) will similarly increase. Section 2 of the Defense of Marriage Act (“DOMA”) permits a state with a mini-DOMA to invalidate a marriage validly celebrated in another. So, too, may a state with a mini-DOMA refuse to recognize a marital privilege otherwise available to opposite-sex couples to protect a same-sex marriage celebrated in another state or a confidential communication held in another state. A conversation in New York, which would recognize a valid marriage between same-sex partners and thus apply any available marital privilege, may never be had for fear that future litigation in Texas, which maintains a mini-DOMA, may force one spouse to reveal those confidential communications while testifying adversely to her spouse.

To provide the certainty needed to fulfill the purpose of the marital privileges, federal court intervention is required to strike section 2 of DOMA and all mini-DOMAs as unconstitutional violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, as well as the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. With reasonable certainty that their marriages will be deemed valid in all jurisdictions, same-sex couples can take comfort in knowing they will not be forced to testify adversely to one another or reveal confidential communications they shared. Same-sex marriages, like their opposite-sex counterparts, will be strengthened by the benefits such privileges afford.